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Showing posts from January 3, 2012



2.0 Objectives

2.1   Introduction

2.2 The Nature of Administration

2.2.1 Characteristic Features of the East India Company

2.2.2 The Regulating Act of 1773

2.2.3 The Amending Act of 178 1

2.3 Constitutional Changes from 1784-1 834

2.3.1 Pitt's India Act 1784

2.3.2 The Amending Act of 1786

2.4 The Central Secretariat

2.4.1 The Departments of Secretaries to Government

2.4.2 Changes in the Secretariat from 1787-1 808

2.4.3 Financial and Colonial Departments

2.4.4 Reconstruction of Departments in 181 5

2.5 Departments under the Governor General and Other ~ i v i b e ~ a r t m e n t s

2.6 The Administration of Revenue

2.6.1 The Imperial Grant of the Diwani

. 2.6.2 Formation of the Board or Council of Revenue

2.5.3 District Administration and the District Collector

2.7 Board of Revenue

2.8 Role of Divisional Commissioners

2.9 The Administration of Criminal Justice and Police

2.10 The Civil Service


1.   Understand the important landmarks in the British East India Company administration from




Trade union is a voluntary organization of workers pertaining to a particular trade, industry or a company and formed to promote and protect their interests and welfare by collective action. They are the most suitable organizations for balancing and improving the relations between the employer and the employees. Trade Unionism has made its headway owing to growth of industrialization. Trade Unionism asserts collectively the rights of the workers. The Trade unions are concerned with the welfare of workers which include:

Securing fair wages for workers and improve their opportunities for promotion and training.

Safeguarding security of tenure and improve their conditions of service. Improving working and living conditions of workers.
Providing educational, cultural and recreational facilities.

In industrially advanced countries trade unionism has made a great impact on the social, political and economic life. India, being an agricultural country, trade unionism is restricted to in…



27.1 Introduction
27.2 Democracy
27.2.1 Procedural democracy
27.3 Development .
27.4 Democracy and Development
27.6 Exercises


on both the democracy and in India denotes two contradictory ,
about their assessment, one, the and development have succeeded; and,
these failed. applies to and development when these are dealt with interdependent or independentof each whether they are compatible or not. presents overview assessment of democracy and development in India as phenomena a d also in relationto each discussed the of
and the models strategies of development in India, this unit discusses democracy in as procedural substantive.


Following Independence India adopted a democratic system of governance. Institutions of democracy in India began to grow the colonial rule. They evolved through various Acts of the British Government an…