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Showing posts from January 1, 2012

All about Father of the Nation...

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, called Mahatma,
is the Father of the Nation.
He was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar in
Gujarat as, the son of Karamchand and Putilibai.
Gandhiji proceeded to England in 1888 and
returned to India as a Barrister-at-law in 1891.
Gandhiji went to Natal in South Africa in 1893 to
practise law. There he was subjected to colour
discrimination and he organized Natal Indian
Congress. He started the journal ‘Indian
Opinion’ and built Phoenix Colony and Tolstoy
Farm here. He experimented the weapon
Satyagraha for the first time in South Africa in
1906. So South Aftica is often called his political
laboratory. The period between 1893 and 1914,
he engaged in a struggle against the racist
authorities of South Africa. It was then that he
evolved the teaching of Satyagraha based on
truth and non-violence.
He returned to India in 1915, leaving South Africa
for ever.
Gandhiji built his ashram on the banks of
Sabarmati in Gujarat on January 29, 1916.
Gandhiji’s first Satyagraha in India was f…



32.1 Introduction

32.2 The Character of Commercialization and “Consumption” under Industrial
32.2.1 Early Days

32.2.2 The Late 19th Century and After

32.3 Representation of “Consumption”

32.4 Material Culture

32.5 The Rise of the Consumer Movement and Material Politics

32.6 Summary

32.7 Exercises


In modern times, the term “consumerism” has been associated with a preoccupation with the acquisition of goods and commodities. Traditionally, it has been used with negative connotations – as a “problem” that indicates a lack of discretion among “buyers” and “consumers” regarding what goods to buy and why to buy them in an increasingly commercialized environment. Among Marxist thinkers especially, what happened has been linked to exploitation under industrial capitalism.

“Consumerism” has been associated with the growth of industrial capitalism in Europe from the 18th century and its global spread thereafter – a development t…



31.1 Introduction

31.2 How Europe Perceived the New Lands

31.3 The Importing of New Plant and Animal Species

31.4 The Wiping Out of the Indigenous Peoples

31.5 Were Human Beings Directly Responsible or Only Indirectly?

31.6 The Impact on Existing Ecosystems

31.7 Coal Mining

31.8 Changing the Face of Nature: The New England Example

31.9 Turning Forests into Cultivable Land --- The Case of Northern India

31.10 The Coming of the Railways

31.11 The Development of an Ecological Awareness

31.12 Summary

31.13 Exercises


The Industrial Revolution changed the lives of people in Europe in a most dramatic way. It brought them from the countryside to the city in search of jobs; it changed their life patterns, created new tastes and recreations. Most significantly, it saw the organization of production of goods on a scale never known before. Factories required fuel and raw material. As new industrial townships came up there wa…



30.1 Introduction

30.2 Theories of Demographic Change
30.2.1 Malthusian Theory of Demographic Change
30.2.2 Demographic Transition Theory

30.2.3 Marx’s Understanding of Demographic Change

30.3 Demographic Change: Different Trajectories
30.3.1 Europe
30.3.2 China

30.3.3 India

30.4 Demography: Society Linkages

30.5 Summary

30.6 Exercises


From the middle of the eighteenth century Western Europe witnessed a historically unprecedented decrease in mortality, followed by a period of rising fertility and then a secular decline in fertility. It was roughly while the western world was in the process of this momentous transformation that population became a subject of intense debate. Economists and statesmen have at different times in different places been extremely anxious about the consequences of contemporary demographic developments.

These anxieties were largely associated with the internal contradictions of the capit…