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Gk exam ready notes 7 self-evaluation and facts

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1.  The European Union (EU) is a family of democratic European countries, committed to working together for peace and prosperity.
2.  It is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe.
3.  It came into existence by the ratification of the Treaty of European Union, or Maastricht Treaty in 1993.
4.  The basic concept of European integration was first proposed by French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman.
5.  Important institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the European Central Bank.
6.  EU aims to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and regional development.
7.  The eurozone, as a monetary union was established in 1999 and is currently composed of 17 member states.
8.  The European Commission is one of the main institutions of the European Union. It drafts proposals for new European laws. It manages the day-to-day business of implementing EU policies and spending EU funds.
9.  The Court of Justice interprets EU laws to make sure they are applied in the same way in all EU countries and legal disputes are settled between EU governments and EU institutions.
10.Europe day is celebrated on 9th May every year.
11.Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce.
12.Intellectual Property is divided into two categories: Industrial property and Copyright.
13.Industrial Property includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs, and geographic indications of source.
14.Copyright, includes literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs.
15.Under the "Patent Rights" Inventor is given the exclusive right to prevent others from making, using, and selling a patented invention for a fixed period of time.
16.The term of the patent is 20 years from the date of filling for all types of inventions.
17.An industrial design constitutes the ornamental or aesthetic aspect of an article. A design may consist of three-dimensional features, such as the shape or surface of an article, or of two-dimensional features, such as patterns, lines or color.
18.A geographical indication is a sign used on goods that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities, reputation or characteristics that are essentially attributable to that place of origin.
19.World Intellectual Property Day is celebrated on April 26 every year.
20.The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme is the largest program for promotion of maternal and child health and nutrition launched in 1975 in pursuance of the National Policy for Children.
21.The primary responsibility for the implementation of the program lies with the Department of Women & Child Development at the Centre and nodal department at the states, which may be Social Welfare, Rural Development, Tribal Welfare or Health Department or an independent Department.
22.The beneficiaries are children below 6 years, pregnant and lactating women and women in the age group of 15 to 44 yrs.
23.The program provides an integrated approach for converging all the basic services supplementary nutrition; immunization; health check-up; referral services; pre-school non-formal education and nutrition & health education.
24.Supplementary Nutrition includes supplementary feeding and growth monitoring; and prophylaxis against vitamin A deficiency and control of nutritional anaemia. The children below the age of six and pregnant & nursing mothers avail support for 300 days in a year.
25.The Anganwadi attempts to bridge the caloric gap between the national recommended and average intake of children and women in low income and disadvantaged communities.
26.Immunization of pregnant women and infants protects children from six vaccine preventable diseases-poliomyelitis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, tuberculosis and measles.
27.Pre-school non-formal programme for the three-to six years old children in the anganwadi is directed towards providing and ensuring a natural, joyful and stimulating environment, with emphasis on necessary inputs for optimal growth and development.
28.Nutrition and Health Education (NHED) forms part of BCC (Behavior Change Communication) strategy which aims at capacity-building of women so that they can look after their own health, nutrition and development needs as well as that of their children and families.
29.Health Check-ups includes health care of children less than six years of age and postnatal care of nursing mothers which includes regular health check-ups, recording of weight, immunization, management of malnutrition, treatment of diarrhea, De-worming and distribution of simple medicines etc.
30.A supercomputer is a very powerful computational machine capable of processing trillions of commands per second.
31.Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems including quantum physics, weather forecasting, climate research, molecular modeling and physical simulations.
32.They are also used to formulate complex weather models, on Earth and the Sun, and assist in global warming research.
33.They can also be used to simulate events like tsunami impact or atomic behavior.
34.The first supercomputer was invented by American Seymour Cray in 1960 named as CDC 1604, known as the "father of supercomputing".
35.Indian Space Research Organisation, the country's premier space-research institution, unveiled India's fastest supercomputer, SAGA-220.
36.Currently, Japan's K computer, built by Fujitsu in Kobe, Japan is the fastest in the world.
37.The processing speed is measured in floating point operations per second (flops), or the number of calculations a supercomputer can perform in a second.
38.The US is the leader of supercomputers, accounting for 274 of the 500 fastest supercomputers in the world. China comes second, with 41 supercomputers. India has 40 supercomputers.
39.The chief difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs concurrently.


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