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Saturday, March 17, 2012

Gk exam ready notes 15self-evaluation and facts


Some Points are hidden as part of quiz exercise. use mouse to highlight text and see the complete answer and self-evaluate
1.  Government of India Act 1935 was formulated by the Joint Committee chaired by Lord Linlithgow. The Committee comprised of both members of the House of Commons and House of Lords and representatives from British India and the princely states.
2.  The Act provided for the establishment of the All India Federation consisting of the British Provinces and the Princely States. The joining of the Princely States was voluntary and as a result the federation did not come into existence.
3.  The Dyarchy was introduced at the Centre (e.g. Department of Foreign Affairs and Defence were reserved for the Governor General). The other federal subjects were to be administered by the Governor General with the assistance and advice of a council of Ministers to be chosen by him. Residuary powers were to be with the Governor General only.
4.  The Federal Legislature i.e. the Central Legislature was to have two chambers: the Council of State and the Federal Assembly. The Council of State was to be a permanent body with one-third of its membership being vacated and renewed triennially. The Federal Assembly's duration was fixed for five years.
5.  It made a three-fold division of power: Federal (Central) Legislative List, Provincial Legislative List and the Concurrent Legislative List. Residuary legislative powers were subject to the discretion of the Governor General. Even if a bill was passed by the Federal Legislature, the Governor General could veto it, while even Acts assented by the Governor General could be disallowed by the King-in-Council.
6.  Provincial autonomy replaced Dyarchy in Provinces i.e. the distinction between reserved and transferred subjects was abolished and full responsible government was established, subject to certain safeguards.
7.  The Act also established a Federal Court at the centre. A Federal Bank (the reserve bank of India) was also established.
8.  Principle of separate electorate was extended to include Anglo-Indians, Indian-Christians and Europeans.
9.  One-third Muslim representation in the central legislature was generated.
10.Burma (now Myanmar) and Aden were separated from India and two new provinces, Orissa and Sind were created.
11.FDI is defined as a company from one country making a physical investment into building a factory, machinery and equipment in another country.
12.An Indian company may receive Foreign Direct Investment under the two routes as given under: Automatic Route and Government Route.
13.FDI is prohibited under the Government Route as well as the Automatic Route in the following sectors: Retail Trading (except single brand product retailing); Atomic Energy; Lottery Business; Gambling and Betting; Business of Chit Fund; Manufacture of cigars , cheroots, cigarillos and cigarettes , of tobacco or of tobacco substitutes, etc.
14.FDI inflow rose by 50 per cent to US$ 20.76 billion during January-August 2011, while the cumulative amount of FDI equity inflows from April 2000 to August 2011 stood at US$ 219.14 billion, according to the latest data released by the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).
15.Services (financial and non- financial), telecom, housing and real estate, construction and power were the sectors that attracted maximum FDI during the first eight months of 2011.
16.Mauritius, Singapore, the US, the UK, the Netherlands, Japan, Germany and the UAE, among others, are the major investors in India.
17.India's foreign exchange (Forex) reserves have increased by US$ 858 million to US$ 318.4 billion for the week ended October 21, 2011, according to the weekly statistical bulletin released by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
18.Recently, the government has further liberalized the FDI mechanism for allowing overseas investment in bee-keeping and share-pledging for raising external debt.
19.Government has revised the FDI limit on FM radio at 26 per cent against the earlier 20 per cent.
20.The Cabinet has cleared 51 per cent FDI in multi-brand retail and also hiked FDI in single-brand retail from 51 per cent to 100 per cent, the Bill is yet to be passes in the Parliament.
21.Atomic nuclei that are not stable, tend to approach stable configuration(s), by spontaneously decomposing to form nuclei with a higher stability. The decomposition process is called radioactivity. The energy and particles which are released during the decomposition process are called radiation.
22.Radioactivity was first discovered in 1896 by the French scientist Henri Becquerel.
23.Radioactive Atoms are because the ratio of neutrons to protons is not ideal. Through radioactive decay, the nucleus approaches a more stable neutron to proton ratio.
24.When unstable nuclei decompose in nature, the process is referred to as natural radioactivity. When the unstable nuclei are prepared in the laboratory, the decomposition is called induced radioactivity.
25.Radioactive decay releases different types of energetic emissions. The three most common types of radioactive emissions are alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays.
26.Alpha radiation consists of a stream of positively charged particles, called alpha particles, which have an atomic mass of 4 and a charge of +2 (a helium nucleus). When an alpha particle is ejected from a nucleus, the mass number of the nucleus decreases by four units and the atomic number decreases by two units.
27.Beta radiation is a stream of electrons, called beta particles. When a beta particle is ejected, a neutron in the nucleus is converted to a proton, so the mass number of the nucleus is unchanged, but the atomic number increases by one unit.
28.Gamma rays are high-energy photons with a very short wavelength (0.0005 to 0.1 nm). The emission of gamma radiation results from an energy change within the atomic nucleus. Gamma emission changes neither the atomic number nor the atomic mass.
29.Half life is defined as the time required for the number of radioactive nuclei of a given kind (or for their activity) to decay to half its initial value. Because of the exponential nature of the decay, this time is independent of the amount of the radionuclide present.
30.There are several different units used to describe radiation and its effects. The simplest unit is that of activity which is measured in number of disintegrations per second (dps). One dps means a radioactive nucleus gives off one particle or photon in one second. This unit, in the international system of units (SI) system, is called the becquerel (Bq), which is equivalent to 1 dps.
31.International Film Festival of India was organized firstly by the Films Divisions, Government of India in 1952 in Mumbai.
32.The IFFI's founding principles centre on discovery, promotion and support of filmmaking of all genres - thus bringing together the diversity of the forms, aesthetics and contents.
33.Since 2004 the IFFI has been organized in Goa as an annual and competitive event.
34.The IFFI aims at providing a common platform for the cinemas of the world to project the excellence of the film art; contributing to the understanding and appreciation of film cultures of different nations in the context of their social and cultural ethos; and promoting friendship and cooperation among people of the world.
35.The 42nd edition of IFFI being scheduled to be held in Panaji, Goa from 23 November to 03 December 2011.
36.This year IFFI has included a special section on 3D films and animation apart from premieres, international screenings, homages to stalwarts, industry-oriented workshops, masterclasses by industry professionals, and much more.
37.The Lifetime Achievement Award will be presented to the eminent French Film Maker Bertrand Tavernier for his films 'Prix Louis Delluc' and the 'Silver Bear' as well as Special Jury Prize award winner of his film 'The Clockmaker' at the 24th Berlin International Film Festival.
38.The Indian Panorama will be opened by the Malayalam film Urumi and will showcase eclectic Indian movies like Ranjana Ami Ar Asbo Na, Zindagi Na Milegi Doobara, Noong Amadi Yeroom, and many more.
39.International movies such as 'The Consul of Bordeax', 'Bullhead', 'Elana', 'Porfirio', 'Restoration', 'Volcano' and others will be showcased.

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