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1. Retailing is the interface between the producer and the individual consumer buying for personal consumption. This excludes direct interface between the manufacturer and institutional buyers such as the government and other bulk customers.
2. Retailing is the last link that connects the individual consumer with the manufacturing and distribution chain.
3. The retail industry is mainly divided into:- 1) Organized and 2) Unorganized Retailing.
4. Organized retailing refers to trading activities undertaken by licensed retailers, that is, those who are registered for sales tax, income tax, etc. These include the corporate-backed hypermarkets and retail chains, and also the privately owned large retail businesses.
5. Unorganized retailing, on the other hand, refers to the traditional formats of low-cost retailing, for example, the local kirana shops, owner manned general stores, paan/beedi shops, hand cart and pavement vendors, etc.
6. The Indian retail sector is highly fragmented with 97 per cent of its business being run by the unorganized retailers and the organized retail sector however is at a very nascent stage.
7. According to FDI policy related to retailing in India, in 1997, FDI in cash and carry (wholesale) with 100 per cent ownership was allowed under the Government approval route. It was brought under the automatic route in 2006.
8. 51 per cent investment in a single brand retail outlet was permitted in 2006. But FDI in Multi-Brand retailing is prohibited in India.
9. Single branding signifies that: (a) only single brand products would be sold, (b) products should be sold under the same brand internationally, (c) single-brand product retail would only cover products which are branded during manufacturing and (d) any addition to product categories to be sold under "single-brand" would require fresh approval from the government.
10.Multi branding signifies that products are sourced from different companies and are labelled under single brand name (as used in departmental chains).
11.Nanotechnology encompasses the understanding of the fundamental physics, chemistry, biology and technology of nanometre-scale objects.
12.Nanotechnology is the study of matter at a miniature level called the Nano scale. . A Nano meter is equal to one billionth of a meter.
13.The properties of atoms and molecules are found to greatly differ on a nano scale than what they are in bulk matter.
14.Nanosilver provides an effective, broad-spectrum antimicrobial coating to the surface of various consumer products. Therefore silver nanotechnology is being used in a wide range of consumer products such as wound dressings, textiles, food storage containers, paints and personal care appliances.
15.Nanotechnology has significantly scaled down the size of transistors and chips used in the production of computers and other electronic goods.
16.Nano- sized gadgets and materials are being developed to diagnose and treat diseases like cancer. Nano-pharmacology helps to produce smart drugs that have negligible side effects.
17.Nanoscale thin films on eyeglasses, computer and camera displays, windows, and other surfaces can make them water-repellent, antireflective, self-cleaning, resistant to ultraviolet or infrared light, antifog, antimicrobial, scratch-resistant, or electrically conductive.
18.Scientists are using nanoparticles to enhance clothing. Coating fabrics with a thin layer of zinc oxide nanoparticles, manufacturers can create clothes that give better protection from UV radiation.
19.Today there are around 500 companies in the market, which employ nanotechnology in the manufacture of their products, including some big names like TATA, Reliance group, Lewis Berger, Saint Gobain glass etc.
20.The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research in India has set up 38 laboratories across the country to carry out research in this field.
21.Soil formation begins with the breakdown of rock into regolith. Continued weathering and soil horizon development process leads to the development of a soil profile, the vertical display of soil horizons.
22.The top layer of the profile is the O horizon which is composed of organic matter. Decomposition of organic matter enriches the soil with nutrients (nitrogen, potassium, etc.), aids soil structure (acts to bind particles), and enhances soil moisture retention.
23.Next layer is the A horizon in which organic material mixes with inorganic products of weathering. The A horizon typically is dark coloured horizon due to the presence organic matter.
24.Eluviations, the removal of inorganic and organic substances from a horizon by leaching occurs in the A horizon due to the downward movement of soil water.
25.The E horizon generally is a light-colored horizon with eluviation being the dominant process. Leaching or the removal of clay particles, organic matter, and/or oxides of iron and aluminum is also active in E horizon.
26.The E horizon has a high concentration of quartz under coniferous forests, giving the horizon an ash-gray appearance.
27.The B horizon is a zone of illuviation where downward moving, especially fine material, is accumulated. The accumulation of fine material leads to the creation of a dense layer in the soil.
28.Eluviation is significant in humid climates where ample precipitation leads to the downward movement of minerals in the soil.
29.Illuviation are found closer to the surface in semiarid and arid climates where precipitation is scarce because due to capillary action cations like calcium and sodium dissolved in soil moves upward.
30.The C horizon represents the soil parent material, either created in situ or transported into its present location. Beneath the C horizon lays bedrock.