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1. Exchange Rate is the rate at which one currency may be converted into another.
2. There are a wide variety of factors which influence the exchange rate, such as interest rates, inflation, and the state of politics and the economy in each country.
3. There are two main systems used to determine a currency's exchange rate: floating currency and pegged currency.
4. Floating currency rate is determined by the market patterns i.e. demand and supply and central bank does not interfere and manage the exchange currency rate.
5. Generally, countries with mature, stable economic markets will use a floating system. Virtually every major nation uses this system, including the U.S., Canada and Great Britain. Floating exchange rates are considered more efficient, because the market will automatically correct the rate to reflect inflation and other economic forces.
6. A pegged, or fixed system, is one in which the exchange rate is set and artificially maintained by the government. The rate will be pegged to some other country's dollar, usually the U.S. dollar. The rate will not fluctuate from day to day.
7. Countries that have immature, potentially unstable economies usually use a pegged system.
8. During the period 1950-1951 until mid-December 1973, India followed an exchange rate regime with Rupee linked to the Pound Sterling, except for the devaluations in 1966 and 1971.
9. On September 24, 1975, the Rupee's ties to the Pound Sterling were broken. India got linked to a "basket of currencies" of the world.
10.Whereas in 1992 India introduced Liberalized Exchange Rate Management System (LERMS) i.e. a dual (official as well as market determined) exchange rate in India and in 1993 India switched to floating exchange rate system.
11.Australia is the sixth largest nation after Russia, Canada, China, the United States of America and Brazil.
12.Australia officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
13.The federation of Australia chiefly comprises these 6 states (New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania) and two federal territories, the northern territory and the Australian capital territory of Canberra.
14.Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a federal division of powers.
15.It has a parliamentary system of government with Queen Elizabeth II at its apex as the Queen of Australia. The Queen resides in the United Kingdom, and she is represented by her viceroys in Australia, (the Governor-General at the federal level and by the Governors at the state level), who by convention act on the advice of her ministers.
16.Great Barrier Reef is the world's longest coral reef which extends like a long - ridge off the north - east coast of Queensland. It consists of thousands of separate reef. The reef is generally formed from the calcareous remains of micro - organism which is known as "coral polyps", at present the reef is facing threat from environmental degradation especially from tourists.
17.The Murray River is the longest river in Australia at 2520km, combining with the Darling and Upper Darling Rivers to form the Murray-Darling basin. The Murray Darling extends over 15% of the continent, and servThe Murray also supports about 1/3 of Australia,s agricultural production, supports 50% of Australia's sheep and croplands, and 25% of beef and dairy herds, contains about 62% of the country's irrigated land and supplies 50% of South Australi's water.
18.The highest point on the mainland is Mount Kosciuszko, (2228 metres).
19.The largest lakes in Australia include Lake Eyre (9500km2), Lake Torrens (5900km2) and Lake Gairdner (4300km2) which are all in South Australia.
20.Julia Gillard has recently become the first female Prime Minister of Australia.
21.Antarctica is the 5th biggest continent of the earth.
22.The highest peak is Vinson Massif at 4900 m.
23.Antarctica has the lowest recorded temperature; -90 C at Vostock in 1983. Inland, temperatures range from -70 C in winter to -35 C in summer. Corresponding figures for coastal regions are -30 C and 0 C.
24.Antarctica is so cold because 80% of incoming solar radiation is reflected back into space by ice and snow. The other 20% is largely absorbed by the atmosphere or reflected by clouds.
25.Antarctica is the driest place on earth. In some places like the Dry Valleys, it has not rained for thousands of years.
26.There are no permanent human residents, but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations scattered across the continent.
27.Only cold-adapted organisms survive here, including many types of algae, animals (for example mites, nematodes, penguins,seals and tardigrades), bacteria, fungi, plants, and protista.
28.A wide spectrum of mineral resources is found in Antarctica. It consists of coal, copper, lead, iron, molybdenum and others. The deposit of oil and natural gas is found in the continental shelf region. According to the Madrid Agreement of 1991, the use of these mineral resources was banned for the 50 years. It has been done to save the ecology and environment of the Antarctica.
29.Antarctica treaty signed in 1959 which states that Antarctica should be used only for peaceful purposes and prohibits military activities such as waste disposal and weapons testing.
30.Tribal movements against Britishers were directed to preserve the tribal identity as the intrusions of external people were affecting the social, political and geo-economical position of the tribes.
31.Resentment of the tribes against the extension of the British rule were due to penetration of money lenders, traders, contractors, etc and the protection given to them by the British government.
32.The tightening of British control over their forest zones, creation of reserved forests and attempts to monopolize forest- wealth through curbs on the use of timber and grazing facilities also led to wide spread tribal revolt.
33.The British colonialism devoid the tribal people of their traditional economic set up and hence they were forced to serve as menial labourers, coolies in plantation, mines and factories.
34.The tribals of Tamar revolted over 7 times between 1789-1832 and were led by Bhola Nath Sahay of Tamar. The tribals murdered the "dikus" in each village of the areas. They burnt and plundered their houses. But the movement was suppressed by the government in 1832-33.
35.The movement of the Santhals was against the exploitation of oppression by landlords, who had unjust ownership of the land of the Santhals. They rebelled in 1855 under Sidhu and Kanhu.
36.The Munda Revolt was led by Birsa Munda in Singhbhum and Ranchi districts of the Chotanagpur region of Bihar. This movement was also directed against the outsiders dikus - landlords, traders, merchants and government officers.
37.The Kol tribesmen of Chotonagpur, who had long been exploited and looked down upon by the non-tribal outsiders, burst out into rebellion in 1831 under their leaders like Buddhu Bhagat, Joa Bhagat and Madara Mahato.
38.They were declared criminals and anti-socials by the Britishers.
39.The main drawback of the revolt was that the tribal movements in India were mostly confined to certain regions. Thus they could not assume the form of an all India movement.