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1. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997. Due to a complex ratification process, it entered into force on 16 February 2005.
2. The Protocol is based on a principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities."
3. It only binds developed countries because it recognizes that they are largely responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere, which are the result of more than 150 years of industrial activity.
4. It has set binding emission reduction targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community. Overall, these targets add up to an average five per cent emissions reduction compared to 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008 to 2012.
5. The goals of Kyoto were to see participants collectively reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% below th 2012. e emission levels of 1990 by
6. Kyoto Protocol consists of three flexibility mechanisms - Joint implementation, Emissions Trading and Clean Development mechanisms.
7. The Joint Implementation mechanism allows any Annex I country to invest in emission reduction projects (referred to as joint implementation project) in any other Annex I country as an alternative to reducing emissions domestically.
8. An Emission Trading allows countries that have emission units to spare - (emissions permitted them but not "used") - to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets. Thus, a new commodity was created in the form of emission reductions or removals.
9. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) allows developed country with an emission reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol to implement an emission reduction project in developing countries as an alternative to more expensive emission reductions in their own countries.
10.Carbon Credit is a permit that allows the holder to emit one ton of carbon dioxide. Carbon credits can be traded in the international market at their current market price.
11.A generic drug is a pharmaceutical product, usually intended to be interchangeable with an innovator product that is manufactured without a licence from the innovator company and marketed after the expiry date of the patent or other exclusive rights.
12.Generic drugs are drugs manufactured and marketed without a brand name. In practice, generics are often marketed as equivalents to branded drugs.
13.They are copies of brand-name drugs and are the same as those brand name drugs in dosage form, safety, strength, route of administration, quality, performance characteristics and intended use.
14.These are much cheaper than, brand-name drugs. For example, paracetamol is a chemical ingredient found in a number of brand-name painkillers, but is also sold as a generic drug (not under a brand name).
15.To launch generic drug in the US Market FDA approval is must.
16.A copy-cat drug version can be launched by a generics manufacturer only after the drug loses patent protection.
17.In the U.S., pharmaceutical patents last for 17 years, during which time only the original developer can legally manufacture the drug covered by the patent. After the expiration of the patent, other drug companies can manufacture and sell generic versions of the drug. This often leads to price competition, which decreases profits for the manufacturers of branded drugs.
18.Ranbaxy, has launched the first generic version of world's top-selling medicine Lipitor in the US. The launch provides an affordable treatment option for hundreds of Americans suffering from high cholesterol.
19.The first company to apply for FDA approval for a generic, in spite of an existing patent, receives a 180-day period of exclusivity to produce and sell the generic version. In the case of Lipitor Ranbaxy would enjoy 180-day market exclusivity for the first six months.
20.Teva Pharmaceutical Industries (TEVA), an Israel-based pharmaceutical company, is the world's largest producer of generic drugs.
21.Paramveer Chakra is similar to the British Victoria Cross, US Medal of Honor, or French Legion of Honor.
22.It is the second highest award of the government of India after Bharat Ratna.
23.It can be awarded posthumously.
24.It was established on 26 January 1950 (the date of India becoming a republic), by the President of India, with effect from 15 August 1947 (the date of Indian independence).
25.It can be awarded to officers or enlisted personnel from all branches of the Indian military.
26.The medal was designed by Savitri Khanolkar.
27.The Ashoka Chakra is the peace time equivalent of the Param Vir Chakra, and is awarded for the "most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent valour or self-sacrifice" other than in the face of the enemy.
28.The Ashoka Chakra is the peace time equivalent of the Param Vir Chakra, and is awarded for the "most conspicuous bravery or some daring or pre-eminent valour or self-sacrifice" other than in the face of the enemy.
29.The award also carries a cash allowance for those under the rank of lieutenant and, in some cases, a cash award. On the death of the recipient, the pension is transferred to the widow until her death or remarriage.
30.Environmental law is a complex and interlocking body of treaties, conventions, statutes, regulations, and common law that operates to regulate the interaction of humanity and the natural environment, toward the purpose of reducing the impacts of human activity.
31.The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries(LDCs).
32.Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are organic chemical substances.
33.The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, called the Ramsar Convention, is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
34.CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
35.Vienna Convention acts as a framework for the international efforts to protect the ozone layer. However, it does not include legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs, the main chemical agents causing ozone depletion.
36.The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete Ozone Layer is a legally binding protocol under the Vienna Convention. The Montreal Protocol stipulates that the production and consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere--chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform--are to be phased out by 2000 (2005 for methyl chloroform).
37.The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is an international legally-binding treaty with three main goals: conservation of biodiversity; sustainable use of biodiversity; fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.
38.The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another.The Nagoya Protocol is an international agreement which aims at sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way, including by appropriate access to genetic resources and by appropriate transfer of relevant technologies