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1. Chandrayaan-1 was India's first unmanned lunar probe launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation in October 2008, and operated till August 2009.
2. The spacecraft was launched by PSLV-C11 from Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota, Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh.
3. The Chandrayaan-1 mission was aimed at high-resolution remote sensing of the moon in visible, near infrared (NIR), low energy X-rays and high-energy X-ray regions.
4. The objectives of the mission were: to prepare a three dimensional atlas (with high spatial and altitude resolution of 5-10 m) of both near and far side of the moon; to conduct chemical and mineralogical mapping of the entire lunar surface for distribution of mineral and chemical elements such as Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, Calcium, Iron and Titanium as well as high atomic number elements such as Radon, Uranium & Thorium with high spatial resolution.
5. There were altogether eleven scientific instruments onboard Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. Five of them are Indian and other six are from ESA (3), NASA (2) and Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1) selected through ISRO Announcement of Opportunity (AO).
6. The detailed analysis of the data obtained from Moon Mineralogy Mapper indicated the presence of water molecules on the lunar surface extending from lunar poles to about 60 deg. latitude. Hydroxyl, a molecule consisting of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom, was also found in the lunar soil.
7. The mission was launched in 22 October 2008 and expected to operate for 2 years. However, at 09.02 (UTC) on 29 August 2009 communication with the spacecraft was suddenly lost. The probe had operated for 312 days. The craft will remain in orbit for approximately another 1000 days, eventually crashing into the lunar surface.
8. A Chandrayaan-1 moon mission payload has enabled scientists to study the interaction between the solar wind and a planetary body like moon without a magnetic field.
9. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) has awarded AIAA SPACE 2009 award to ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 mission for its key contributions to space science and technology.
10. ISRO is also planning a second version of Chandrayaan named Chandrayaan II which will land two motorised rovers- one Russian and another Indian - on the Moon in 2013. The rover will be designed to move on wheels on the lunar surface, pick up samples of soil or rocks, do on-site chemical analysis and send the data to the mother-spacecraft Chandrayaan II, which will be orbiting above. Chandrayaan II will transmit the data to Earth.
11. The national anthem of India turns 100 today.
12. The Indian National anthem, originally composed in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24 January 1950.
13. Rabindranath Tagore's Jana Gana Mana was first performed on December 27, 1911 at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress.
14. The complete song consists of five stanzas but our national anthem consists of only the first stanza.
15. A formal rendition of the national anthem takes fifty-two seconds.
16. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and takes about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally.
17. The lyrics were rendered into English by Rabindranath Tagore himself.
18. There are several renderings of the full song, including some by great artistes like D.K. Pattamal, Bhimsen Joshi, Dr Balamurali Krishna, Pandit Jasraj, Lata Mangeshkar and Bhupen Hazarika - in their trademark style.
19. The role of the State vs. Market has been one of the major issues in development economics and policy. The new policy of liberalization, privatization and globalization de-emphasized the role of the public sector in the nation's economy.
20. The Government started to deregulate the areas of its operation and subsequently, the disinvestment in Public Sector Enterprises (PSEs) was announced.
21. The process of deregulation was aimed at enlarging competition and allowing new firms to enter the markets. The market was thus opened up to domestic entrepreneurs / industrialists and norms for entry of foreign capital were liberalized.
22. Disinvestment is simply selling the equity(share) invested by the government in Public Sector Enterprises(PSU).PSUs are enterprises which are either owned completely by the government or whose shares are maximum owned by the government(51% or above).Examples include BHEL,ONGC etc.
23. There are two ways of disinvestment: a) Transfer of complete management to private enterprises. Such as Modern Food Industries, Bharat Aluminum Company Limited (BALCO), VSNL, Centaur Hotel Airport are examples of this kind. b) Partial selling of shares. Here government sells some part of shares. But still it retains majority of them (51% or higher).
24. Government had constituted Rangarajan Committee in 1993 to recommend on the policy of Disinvestment in India.
25. The aims of disinvestments policy are: (i)raising of resources to meet fiscal deficit; (ii) encouraging wider public participation including that of workers; (iii) penetrating market discipline within public enterprises; and (iv) improving performance.
26. Disadvantages of disinvestments are: private companies thrive for profits and strive to infringe the rights of people whereas PSUs work for the people. Thus disinvestments are certainly against the interest of the people but it is a necessary evil.
27. Foreign direct investments in these companies would mean more foreign control. This would mean that the sovereignty would be hampered.
28. Disinvestment may lead to large scale unemployement.