Skip to main content

computers and communication technology (CCT),

identify the basic nature of computers and communication
technology (CCT),
. explain the characteristics of
. describe applications of CCT at
home, in education, and in other
. appreciate the importance of CCT
in real life applications,
. notice the changes brought about
by CCT,
. perceive the problems of the
digital divide and
. recognise major national
organisations. contributions to
the development of CCT in


. identify the basic nature of
computers and communication
technology (CCT),
. explain the characteristics of
. describe applications of CCT at
home, in education, and in other
. appreciate the importance of CCT
in real life applications,
. notice the changes brought about
by CCT,
. perceive the problems of the
digital divide and
. recognise major national
organisations. contributions to
the development of CCT in

With an abundance of electronic devices in general
and, in particular, with a proliferation of computersupported
technologies and easy access to
communication networks, the world today seems
to begin with an e. It is e-mail, e-learning,
e-business, e-content or even e-waste. In short, it
is an e-world! Electronics is the dominant
technology of our times.
All over the world, there is a movement towards an information . based
society. Therefore it seems extremely important that the basic nature
and overall capabilities of CCT are understood and appreciated by all
because computers are information processing tools and
communication technologies enable us to share information. Together
they affect all of us. It is also important that we are able to apply the
technology tools in our work, whatever our field of work may be.
The way these technologies affect all of our lives include:
. Educational, in the way we learn and shape the course of our
learning according to our own interests.
. Technological, in terms of knowledge creation, publishing and distribution.
. Societal, in our living, working and growing and looking at ourselves
in a global context
CCT offers powerful means to make governance transparent and
answerable to the people. Similarly, they can be used to ensure more transparency in business practices.
With CCT working in tandem with other factors that strengthen
democracy, such as the Right to Information Bill, we can hope to see increased empowerment of ordinary citizens. CCT could eliminate the role of the intermediary who makes profit by keeping information secret and leaking it selectively to those who please them. Ultimately, CCT may help to balance the sharp socio-economic divides in our society by giving access to those who were kept away from the mainstream due to lack of relevant information.
From a relatively slow-changing, multi-structured society where many disparities co-existed, India is now passing through a period of transition. At such times there is a lot of pressure on society to become homogeneous. That is when the inequities between different sections become all the more evident.
One such inequality, called the digital divide, separates those who
have access to the digital world (computers and related technologies) from those who do not have this access. While one section of young people may have access to CCT at home, at school and in their mobile phones, the majority may get a chance to experience CCT only occasionally. It is obvious that the ones with the advantage will keep up with the technological growth while the others would keep falling further behind in terms of information access. This divide could cause strain, even conflict, in society. However, the tension can be eased:
. if everyone knows what they can get out of CCT,
. if we can cut the costs of access,
. if there are enough public Internet facilities available, and
. if enough sites in Indian languages come up.
E-commerce employs computers in different areas of commerce such as marketing, customer visit, product browsing, shopping basket checkout, tax and shopping, receipt and process order while e-business offers services pertaining to processing transactions, documentation, presentations, financial analysis, home based services, inventory management and gathering product information using CCT.
All leading banks, including the State Bank of India
provide Internet banking facility. With this facility one can check account balance and perform bank transactions from anywhere. We can see account details, pay a bill and print account statement online. Also, the bank provides SMS alert service, so that, whenever bank transaction takes place, an SMS is sent by the bank to our mobile phones.
The digital nature of CCT results in convergence. Text, photos, statistical tables, maps, music, movies are all produced digitally, in that they are coded and made up of zeros and ones. This makes it convenient to bring them together onto common platforms. They can be brought into play, interchanged and transformed, and also circulated digitally.
National Informatics Centre  of the Department of Information
Technology is providing network backbone and e-governance support to Central and State Governments, Union Territories administrations, districts and other government bodies in India. It offers a wide range of ICT services including Nationwide Communication Network for decentralized planning, improvement in government services and wider transparency in national and local governments. NIC assists in implementing Information
Technology Projects and is also responsible for bringing computerisation in the lives of the Indian people.
NASSCOM (Figure 1.9) is the premier trade body and the chamber of commerce of the IT-BPO industry in India. It is a global trade body with more than 1200 members who are broadly in the business of services, products, IT infrastructure management, R&D services, e-commerce and web services, engineering services, offshoring, and animation and gaming
Department of Information Technology (Figure 1.10) is under the
Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Governmentof India. Its main objective is to make India a global information technology super power and a front-runner in the age of information revolution, to bring the benefits of electronics to every walk of life and to develop the Indian electronics industry as a global player. Its website has an important portal, viz., The India Portal (, v.single window access. to information and government to consumer services to be electronically delivered from all state sector institutions and organisations. It provides
multilingual content and had received the Best e-Governance Award in Technology at the national level announced by the Computer Society of India (CSI) in 2006
. Powerful technology is within our reach.
. It has overpowered the limitations of time, distance and money.
. CCT links people all over irrespective of distances between them.
. CCT has changed our life pattern.
. Computers have been useful at home as appliances, supporting entertainment/games
and for surfing the Internet.
. CCT are capable of contributing a lot to education, buiseness, e-governance, etc.
. Easier access to CCT can help bridge the digital divide


Popular posts from this blog



13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


The revitalization of Pancha…

Q. What is the meaning of the terms like ‘Pardon’, ‘Reprieve’, ‘Respite’, ‘Remission’ and ‘Commutation’ with respect to the power of the President to grant pardon to convicted persons?

Ans. In terms of their scope and effect, these terms have specific connotations. The effect of Pardon is to abolish punishment and to absolve the convict of all charges. If Pardon is granted, it is assured as if the convict has not committed any crime. The convict will not face any disabilities due to the allegations and charges made against him. ‘Remission’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment. For example, the imprisonment for 20 years may be reduced to the imprisonment for 10 years. ‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. For example, punishment to death may be changed to life imprisonment. ‘Respite’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. For example, the punishment to death awarded to a pregnant woman, may be changed to simple life imprisonment. Respite means delay in execution of punishment especially that of death, in order to …



1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities


After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.


The dawn of 21st century is marked by decentralized governance both as a strategy and philosophy of brining about reforms and changes in democracies. These changes led to such virtues of transparency, responsiveness and accountability and ensures good governance. Today decentralization and democracy are the most significant themes in the development discourse. In the present contex…