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1947 American President Harry Truman’s Doctrine
about the containment of communism
1947 - 52 Marshall Plan: US aid for the reconstruction of
the Western Europe
1948 - 49 Berlin blockade by the Soviet Union and the
airlift of supplies to the citizens of West Berlin
by the US and its allies
1950 - 53 Korean War; division of Korea along the 38th
1954 Defeat of the French by the Vietnamese at
Dien Bien Phu
Signing of the Geneva Accords
Division of Vietnam along the 17th Parallel
Formation of SEATO
1954 - 75 American intervention in Vietnam
1955 Signing of the Baghdad Pact, later CENTO
1956 Soviet intervention in Hungary
1961 US-sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba
Construction of the Berlin Wall
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis
1965 American intervention in the Dominican
1968 Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia
1972 US President Richard Nixon’s visit to China
1978 - 89 Vietnamese intervention in Cambodia
1979 - 89 Soviet intervention in Afghanistan
1985 Gorbachev becomes the President of the
USSR; begins the reform process
1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall; mass protests against
governments in eastern Europe
1990 Unification of Germany
1991 Disintegration of the Soviet Union
End of the Cold War era

Banned nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water.
Signed by the US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5 August 1963.
Entered into force on 10 October 1963.
Allows only the nuclear weapon states to have nuclear weapons and stops others from
aquiring them. For the purposes of the NPT, a nuclear weapon state is one which has
manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device prior to 1
January 1967. So there are five nuclear weapon states: US, USSR (later Russia), Britain, France
and China. Signed in Washington, London, and Moscow on 1 July 1968.
Entered into force on 5 March 1970. Extended indefinitely in 1995.
The first round of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks began in November 1969. The Soviet
leader Leonid Brezhnev and the US President Richard Nixon signed the following in Moscow
on 26 May 1972 – a) Treaty on the limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (ABM Treaty); and
b) Interim Agreement on the limitation of strategic offensive arms.
Entered into force on 3 October 1972.
The second round started in November 1972. The US President Jimmy Carter and the Soviet
leader Leonid Brezhnev signed the Treaty on the limitation of strategic offensive arms in Vienna
on 18 June 1979.
Treaty signed by the USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev and the US President George Bush (Senior)
on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms in Moscow on 31 July 1991.
Treaty signed by the Russian President Boris Yeltsin and the US President George Bush (Senior)
on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms in Moscow on 3 January 1993.

The idea of a New Inter -national Economic Order (NIEO) originated with this realisation. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) brought out a report in 1972 entitled Towards a New Trade Policy for Development. The report proposed a reform of the global trading system so as to: (i) give the LDCs control over their natural resources exploited by the developed Western countries, (ii) obtain access to Western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and, therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries, (iii) reduce the cost of technology from the Western countries, and (iv) provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.

more facts are invited ..................


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13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


The revitalization of Pancha…

General Studies :: Indian Polity #1

Constitutional evolution under British ruleRegulating Act 1773beginning of British parliamentary control over the East India Companysubordination of the presidencies of Bombay and Madras to BengalGovernor of Bengal made Governal-Generalcouncil of Governor-General establishedSupreme Court established in CalcuttaPitt’s India Act 1784commercial and political activities of the Company separatedestablished a board of control over the CompanyCharter Act 1813trade monopoly of the Company abolishedmissionaries allowed to preach in IndiaCharter Act 1833Governor-General of Bengal becomes Governor-General of Indiafirst Governor-General Lord William Bentickends commercial activities of the CompanyCharter Act 1853legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s council separatedopen competition for Indian Civil Services establishedIndian Council Act 1861establishes legislative councils at the centre, presidencies and provincesGovernor-General’s executive council to have Indians as non…

Q. What is the meaning of the terms like ‘Pardon’, ‘Reprieve’, ‘Respite’, ‘Remission’ and ‘Commutation’ with respect to the power of the President to grant pardon to convicted persons?

Ans. In terms of their scope and effect, these terms have specific connotations. The effect of Pardon is to abolish punishment and to absolve the convict of all charges. If Pardon is granted, it is assured as if the convict has not committed any crime. The convict will not face any disabilities due to the allegations and charges made against him. ‘Remission’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment. For example, the imprisonment for 20 years may be reduced to the imprisonment for 10 years. ‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. For example, punishment to death may be changed to life imprisonment. ‘Respite’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. For example, the punishment to death awarded to a pregnant woman, may be changed to simple life imprisonment. Respite means delay in execution of punishment especially that of death, in order to …