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Thursday, March 1, 2012

India AREA & POPULATION


CHAPTER 2


AREA & POPULATION


2.1.    Population census is the total process of collecting, compiling, analyzing or otherwise disseminating demographic, economic and social data pertaining, at a specific time, of all persons in a country or a well defined part of a country. As such, the Census provides a snapshot of the country’s population and housing at a given point of time.

2.2.   Population census is the biggest source of comprehensive data on demography, economic activity of the people, their literacy rate and educational achievements,   status   of   housing   and   household   amenities,   extent   of urbanization,  status  of  health  of  the  people  including  rates  on  fertility  and mortality, information on Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes ,language, religion & migration and the like.

2.3.    The 1st Population Census of Independent India was held in 1951. The 7th census since independence, census 2011 was held in two phases. The 1st Phase was on House listing and housing census and collection of data on National Population Register. The 1st  phase was held during April-September,
2010. The second phase on population enumeration was held during 9th to 28th February, 2011. Besides this a Revisional Round was held during 1st  to 5th March, 2011. However, in snowbound areas, the population enumeration was conducted during 11th  to 30th  September, 2010. The number of units in 2011
Census was as follows:

States/UTs
35
Districts
640
Sub-districts
5,961
Towns
8,001
Villages
640,852
Enumeration Blocks(in million)
2,47
Households(Estimated in million)
240

2.4.    The 2011 Population Census in India introduced various new features, which include :

          State of the Art designing used for designing the Schedules;          New features on the HH Schedule;
          Bar Code, Form Number, Continued Sheet;

          Linking to House list Household;          New/Revised Questions;
          Name of the Institutional Household to be recorded;          Sex : New category “Other” introduced;
          Date of Birth question introduced;
          Current marital Status : Separate codes assigned for Separated and Divorced;
          New filter Question on SC/ST introduced – “Is this person SC/ST”;
          Question  on  Disability  modified   more  types  introduced  and placement of the question changed;
          Literacy status for ‘Other’ sex added in addition to existing Male and Female;
          New Codes under Status of Attendance introduced; Not attending/ Attended before -7, Never attended-8
          Work : Among Marginal Workers-Introduced new category for those who worked for less than 3 months
          Renters  -  A  separate  Code-5  has  been  included  under  non- economic activity;
          Prostitutes to be categorized under “Others” in place of “Beggar” in
2001;
          Person with unidentified source of income or unspecific source of subsistence have been categorized under category ‘Others’.

2.5.    Some of the important findings of the 2011 Population Census are :


 
The population of India on 1st  March, 2011, as per the provisional population totals of Census 2011, is 1,210,193,422, compared to a total of 1,028,737,436 in 2001. In absolute terms, the population of India has increased by more than 181 million during the decade
2001-2011. The absolute addition to the population during the decade 2001-2011 is slightly lower than the population of Brazil, the fifth most populous country in the world.

          While India accounts for a meager 2.4 percent of the world surface area of 135.79 million square kms., it supports and sustains a whopping 17.5 percent of the world population. In contrast, the USA accounts for 7.2 percent of the surface area with only 4.5 percent of the world population.

          Uttar  Pradesh  continues  to  be  the  most  populous  State  in  the country with almost 200 million people living here, which is more than the population of Brazil, the fifth most populous country in the world. The combined population of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra (the second most populous State), at 312 million, is substantially grater than the population of USA, the third most populous country of  the  world.  Twenty  States  and  Union  Territories  now  have  a

population of over ten million. On the other extreme, there are five States and Union Territories in the country that are yet to reach the one million mark.

          According to the provisional population totals of Census 2011, out of a total population of 1,21,01,93,422 persons, 62,37,24,248 are males and 58,64,69,174 females. As per this, the sex ratio of India is 940. The sex ratio at the National level has risen by seven points since the last Census in 2001. This is the highest sex ratio since
1971.

          Sex ratio at the beginning of last century .i.e. in 1901 was 972.
There was a steady decline in sex  ratio over the decade till it reached the minimum at 927 in 1991. Since then there was some improvement as the sex ratio marginally improved to 933 in 2001 and further improved to 940 in 2011.

          Among the major States, Bihar, Jammu Kashmir and Gujarat have experienced a fall in the sex ratio. The decline ranged from 2 points in Gujarat to 9 points in Jammu & Kashmir. Other smaller Union Territories showing steep decline are Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. Perceptible increase has been observed in the major States such as Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and all the States located in the North East.

          It is interesting to note that States having historically low sex ratio such as Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Chandigarh have shown appreciable increase in the sex ratio in Census 2011. Majority of the  States identified  as  gender  critical  for  special  attention  and intervention as part of the Census 2011 have shown increasing trend in the sex ratio as per the provisional results. The lowest sex ratio  among  the  States  has  been  recorded  in  Haryana  (877), Jammu & Kashmir (883) and Sikkim (889). Among the UTs the lowest sex ratio has been returned in Daman & Diu (618), Dadra & Nagar Haveli (775) and Chandigarh (818).

          The total number of children in the age-group 0-6 years, as per the provisional population totals of Census 2011, is 158.8 million. It is significant that out of the absolute increase of 181 million in the country’s population during the decade 2001-11, 88 percent has been contributed by the Child population in the age group of 0-6 years. In Census 2001, the total number of children in the age- group 0-6 years was about 163.8million, about 5 million more than

the number recorded in 2011. This reduction is indicative of a fall in fertility and is a positive result.

          The data on child population in the age group 0-6 years, in the provisional population totals of Census 2011 is primarily intended for calculating the literacy rates. However, it also allows us to analyze possible linkages  with  growth  of  population,  particularly providing leads on fertility. It can be assumed with a fair amount of confidence that the child population in this age group is least likely to be affected by inter-state migrations. In a population that is not greatly affected by huge changes in age structure, adult migration or child mortality between two points of time, a significant fall in proportion  of  children  in  the  age  group  0-6  years  is  broadly indicative of fall in fertility during the period.

          The number of literates and illiterates aged seven and above in
India as per the provisional population total of Census 2011 is
778,454,120 and 272,950,015 respectively. There has been a marked  improvement  in  the  proportion  of  literates  in  the  last decade. Literates in 2011 constitute 74 percent of the total population aged seven and above as compared to 65 percent in
2001. On the other hand, illiterates form 26 per cent of the total population in 2011 as compared to 35 percent in 2001. In absolute terms, 217,700,941 additional persons have become literate during the decade 2001-2011. A significant milestone reached in Census
2011, is that the total number of illiterates has come down from
304,146,862 in 20001 to 272,950,015 a decline of 31,196,847 persons.

          One of the interesting features of Census 2011 is that out of total of
217,700,941 literates added during the decade, females (110,069,001) out number males (107,631,940). A reverse trend was noticed during 1991-2001. The decadal increase in number of literates among males is of 31.98 percentage points while the corresponding increase in case of females is of 49.10 percentage points.

          The effective literacy rate for India in Census 2011, works out to
74.04 percent. The corresponding figures for males and females are 82.14 and 65.46 per cent respectively. Thus three-fourth of the population of aged 7 years and above is literate in the country. Four out of every five males and two out of every three females in the country are literate. The country has continued its march in improving  literacy  rate  by  recording  a  jump  of  9.21  percentage points during 2001-2011. The increase in literacy rates in males and females are in the order of 6.88 and 11.79 percentage points

respectively. However, efforts are still required to achieve the target of 85 per cent set by the Planning Commission to be achieved by the year 2011-12. Further, there is still need to improve the Female Literacy Rate to become comparable to the Male Literacy Rate.

          Density  of  Population  is  defined  as  the  number  of  person  per square kilometer. It is an important index of population which shows concentration of population in a particular area. As per the provisional population totals of Census 2011, the population density of India has gone up to 382 persons per square kilometer from 325 persons per square kilometer in 2001. On an average, 57 more people inhabit every square kilometer in the country as compared to a decade ago.

          The States and Union Territories of our country vary widely in terms of their density due to differences in climatic conditions, geo- physical characteristics, availability of resources etc. As per census
2011, the density of population per km is highest in NCT of Delhi -
11297, followed by Chandigarh 9252. Among major states Bihar is the mostly density populated with density of 1102 persons per sq km followed by West Bengal (1029)l, Kerala (859). Arunachal Pradesh is the least densely populated state in the country having
17 persons per sq km in 2011.

2.6.    This chapter contains the following tables :

Table 2.1 :     Area and population by states-Census 2011

Table 2.2 :    Decennial population by Census

Table 2.3 :    Distribution  of  population,  sex  ratio,  density  and  decadal growth rate of population (Census 2011).

Table 2.4 :    Distribution of population by age group 0-6 and 7 above Sex- wise (Census 2011).

Table 2.5 :    Distribution of population by literates and literacy rate by sex-wise (Census 2011).

Table 2.6 :    Sex ratio population by Census.

Table 2.7 :    Projected population.

Table 2.8 :    Projected total/urban population by sex as on 1st March

Table 2.9 :    Estimated birth rates, death rates and infant mortality rate by residence.
Table 2.10 : Estimated  mid-year  population  by  States/UTs  (as  on  1st
July).

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