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Sunday, February 19, 2012

examination ready series Do You Know

DO you know about

  1. Regulatory States
  2. Avain Flu
  3. Nebulae
  4. Polar Wandering
    True polar wander is a solid-body rotation of a planet or moon with respect to its spin axis, causing the geographic locations of the North and South Poles to change, or "wander". In a stable state, the largest moments of inertia axis is aligned with the spin axis, with the smaller two moment of inertia axes lying in the plane of the equator. When this is not the case, true polar wander will occur: the planet or moon will rotate as a rigid body to realign the largest moment of inertia axis with the spin axis
  5. Reverse Brain Drain
    Reverse brain drain , which refers to the migration issue, whereby human capital moves in reverse from a more developed country to a less developed country
  6. Treeline
    The tree line is the edge of the habitat at which trees are capable of growing. Beyond the tree line, they are unable to grow because of inappropriate environmental conditions (usually cold temperatures or lack of moisture)
    Some distinguish additionally a deeper timberline, where trees form a forest with a closed canopy
    At the tree line, tree growth is often very stunted, with the last trees forming low, densely matted bushes. If it is caused by wind, it is known as krummholz formation, from the German for 'twisted wood'.[3]:58
    The tree line, like many other natural lines (lake boundaries, for example), appears well-defined from a distance, but upon sufficiently close inspection, it is a gradual transition in most places. Trees grow shorter towards the inhospitable climate until they simply stop growing

    fore more http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree_line
  7. De-reservation of forests

    Under Section 2 of the Act, no state government or other authority shall make any order directing that any reserved forest (or any portion of a reserved forest) shall cease to be reserved, without prior approval of the central government.
    A reserved forest in a state is as defined in any law for the time being in force in that state.
    • The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, recognizes the rights of forest-dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers over the forest areas inhabited by them and provides a framework for according the same.
    • The Forest Conservation Act 1980 was enacted to help conserve the country's forests. It strictly restricts and regulates the de-reservation of forests or use of forest land for non-forest purposes without the prior approval of Central Government. To this end the Act lays down the pre-requisites for the diversion of forest land for non-forest purposes.
    • The Indian Forest Act, 1927 consolidates the law relating to forests, the transit of forest-produce and the duty leviable on timber and other forest-produce.

  8. Citizen Journalist
    "Citizen Journalism" or Participatory Journalism is an evolving form of journalism through user generated content. When any common man in his capacity as a citizen of a nation takes up the initiative to report things or express his views about happenings around him then the occurrence is popularly termed as citizen journalism or participatory journalism.
    Citizen Journalists are not bound by the conventional term of a journalist. Citizen journalists take up an initiative to express ideas irrespective of their educational or professional background. In a way this emerging form of journalism is promising a scenario of breaking free from media bias as well as taking local news on a global platform.

  9. Space X dragon
    Dragon is a free-flying, reusable spacecraft being developed by SpaceX under NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program. Initiated internally by SpaceX in 2005, the Dragon spacecraft is made up of a pressurized capsule and unpressurized trunk used for Earth to LEO transport of pressurized cargo, unpressurized cargo, and/or crew members.
    The Dragon spacecraft is comprised of 3 main elements: the Nosecone, which protects the vessel and the docking adaptor during ascent; the Spacecraft, which houses the crew and/or pressurized cargo as well as the service section containing avionics, the RCS system, parachutes, and other support infrastructure; and the Trunk, which provides for the stowage of unpressurized cargo and will support Dragon’s solar arrays and thermal radiators.
    In December 2008, NASA announced the selection of SpaceX’s Falcon 9 launch vehicle and Dragon spacecraft to resupply the International Space Station (ISS) when the Space Shuttle retires. The $1.6 billion contract represents a minimum of 12 flights, with an option to order additional missions for a cumulative total contract value of up to $3.1 billion.
    Though designed to address cargo and crew requirements for the ISS, as a free-flying spacecraft Dragon also provides an excellent platform for in-space technology demonstrations and scientific instrument testing. SpaceX is currently manifesting fully commercial, non-ISS Dragon flights under the name “DragonLab”. DragonLab represents an emergent capability for in-space experimentation.
    http://www.spacex.com/dragon.php
  10. Biological Toilets
    The key to DRDO's bio-toilet technology is a consortium of anaerobic bacteria --organisms which do not require oxygen to live and multiply -- that has been formulated and adopted to work at temperatures as low as five degrees Celsius, the scientists said.

    The bacterial consortium acts as inoculum (seed material) to the biodigester converting the organic waste into methane and carbon dioxide. The biodigester buried below the ground serves as a reaction vessel whose temperature is maintained between 5 and 30 degrees Celsius by solar heating. Charging of the biodigester with the bacterial inoculum is done only once during the entire life of bio-toilet.

    DRDO scientists say their technology allows the human waste to be disposed of in an eco-friendly manner in places with extremely low temperatures. They claim their process results in treated effluent free from pathogens, and biogas (methane) is generated as a byproduct, which can be used for cooking and room heating.

    According to scientists, the biodigester developed by DRDO is suitable for below zero temperatures of the Himalayan region and is maintenance free. Around 90 DRDO bio-toilets have been installed at 24 locations, including several places in Leh, Sikkim and at the Base Camp in Siachen glacier, DRDO said.

    The scientists said as a spin-off, the same technology has been used to develop bio-toilets for Indian Railways. These toilets were successfully run on the Gwalior-Barauni Mail for two years and the technology has been transferred to eight firms, scientists said.

1 Regulatory States   [ you should also know about developmental states]

In Nicola Phillips’ words: ‘the emergence of the
regulatory state refers to a process by which economic management has become ‘procedural’:
it is characterised by an increasingly rule-based, technocratic and juridical approach to economic
governance, in which there is a greater emphasis on institutional self-regulation’

Its empirical manifestations include at a minimum the emergence of law-backed specialised agencies, often
assumed to operate through administrative means to support the unitary goal of economic
efficiency. More generally, the notion of the regulatory state connotes greater reliance on
institutions operating at arms-length from government, insulated from daily political pressures and
embedding their decisions in technical expertise

Characteristics of the Developmental state

  • Emphasis on market share over profit
  • Economic nationalism
  • Protection of fledging domestic industries
  • Focus on foreign technology transfer
  • Large government bureaucracy
  • Alliance between the state, labour and industry called corporatism
  • Skepticism of neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus
  • Prioritization of economic growth over political reform
  • Legitimacy and Performance
  • Emphasis on technical education
Avain Flu

Influenza (Seasonal)

Key facts

  • Influenza is an acute viral infection that spreads easily from person to person.
  • Influenza circulates worldwide and can affect anybody in any age group.
  • Influenza causes annual epidemics that peak during winter in temperate regions.
  • Influenza is a serious public health problem that causes severe illnesses and deaths for higher risk populations.
  • An epidemic can take an economic toll through lost workforce productivity, and strain health services.
  • Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection.

Overview

Seasonal influenza is an acute viral infection caused by an influenza virus.
There are three types of seasonal influenza – A, B and C. Type A influenza viruses are further typed into subtypes according to different kinds and combinations of virus surface proteins. Among many subtypes of influenza A viruses, currently influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) subtypes are circulating among humans. Influenza viruses circulate in every part of the world. Type C influenza cases occur much less frequently than A and B. That is why only influenza A and B viruses are included in seasonal influenza vaccines.

Signs and symptoms

Seasonal influenza is characterized by a sudden onset of high fever, cough (usually dry), headache, muscle and joint pain, severe malaise (feeling unwell), sore throat and runny nose. Most people recover from fever and other symptoms within a week without requiring medical attention. But influenza can cause severe illness or death in people at high risk (see below). The time from infection to illness, known as the incubation period, is about two days.

Who is at risk?

Yearly influenza epidemics can seriously affect all age groups, but the highest risk of complications occur among children younger than age two, adults age 65 or older, and people of any age with certain medical conditions, such as chronic heart, lung, kidney, liver, blood or metabolic diseases (such as diabetes), or weakened immune systems.

Transmission

Seasonal influenza spreads easily and can sweep through schools, nursing homes or businesses and towns. When an infected person coughs, infected droplets get into the air and another person can breath them in and be exposed. The virus can also be spread by hands infected with the virus. To prevent transmission, people should cover their mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing, and wash their hands regularly.

Treatment

Antiviral drugs for influenza are available in some countries and effectively prevent and treat the illness. There are two classes of such medicines, 1) adamantanes (amantadine and remantadine), and 2) inhibitors of influenza neuraminidase (oseltamivir and zanamivir). Some influenza viruses develop resistance to the antiviral medicines, limiting the effectiveness of treatment. WHO monitors antiviral susceptibility in the circulating influenza viruses.

Seasonal epidemics

Influenza epidemics occur yearly during autumn and winter in temperate regions. Illnesses result in hospitalizations and deaths mainly among high-risk groups (the very young, elderly or chronically ill). Worldwide, these annual epidemics result in about three to five million cases of severe illness, and about 250 000 to 500 000 deaths. Most deaths associated with influenza in industrialized countries occur among people age 65 or older. In some tropical countries, influenza viruses circulate throughout the year with one or two peaks during rainy seasons.

Disease effects

Influenza can cause serious public health and economic problems. In developed countries, epidemics can result in high levels of worker absenteeism and productivity losses. In communities, clinics and hospitals can be overwhelmed when large numbers of sick people appear for treatment during peak illness periods. While most people recover from a bout of influenza, there are large numbers of people who need hospital treatment and many who die from the disease every year. Little is known about the effects of influenza epidemics in developing countries.

Prevention

The most effective way to prevent the disease or severe outcomes from the illness is vaccination. Safe and effective vaccines have been available and used for more than 60 years. Among healthy adults, influenza vaccine can prevent 70% to 90% of influenza-specific illness. Among the elderly, the vaccine reduces severe illnesses and complications by up to 60%, and deaths by 80%.
Vaccination is especially important for people at higher risk of serious influenza complications, and for people who live with or care for high risk individuals.
WHO recommends annual vaccination for (in order of priority):
  • nursing-home residents (the elderly or disabled)
  • elderly individuals
  • people with chronic medical conditions
  • other groups such as pregnant women, health care workers, those with essential functions in society, as well as children from ages six months to two years.
Influenza vaccination is most effective when circulating viruses are well-matched with vaccine viruses. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, and the WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network (GISN), a partnership of National Influenza Centres around the world, monitors the influenza viruses circulating in humans. WHO annually recommends a vaccine composition that targets the three most representative strains in circulation.

WHO response

WHO, with its partners, monitors influenza globally, annually recommends a seasonal influenza vaccine composition, and supports Member States efforts to develop prevention and control strategies. WHO works to strengthen national and regional influenza diagnostic capacities, disease surveillance, outbreak responses, and increase vaccine coverage among high-risk groups.


 

Definition of Nebulae Star clusters in which the light of the individual stars, because of their distance, merge to give the impression of a cloud with a more or less well-defined center. Great numbers of them are found in the heavens, and when one of them is rising at birth, or is in conjunction with the Moon, it is said to produce blindness or other ocular defect.



The principal nebulae noted in Astrology are: Praesepe, The Hyades, The Pleiades in 29° Taurus-Scorpio; the Aselli in 61, Leo-Aquarius; and Aldebaran-Antares in 8° Gemini-Sagittarius. Ptolemy refers to the "cloudy spot of Cancer, the Pleiades of Taurus, the Arrow-head of Sagittarius, the sting of Scorpio, the parts about the mane of Leo, and the urn of Aquarius" in reference to blindness. The Ascendant or Moon in any of these positions and afflicted by Mars indicates blindness from an accident or by violence; afflicted by Saturn, by a natural defect, such as the inhibiting or decay of the optic nerve, cataract, glaucoma, or obstructing growths.




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