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Exam Ready Notes Indian Polity - 01

  • which state passed first the panchayti Raj Act  after 73rd constitutional  amendment Act in 1992   -  Karnataka
  • In which state was first non-congress government formed in
    Independent history of India - Kerala (By E M S Namboodiripad in1957)
  • The first leader of Opposition recognised by the Lok-sabha was - Y B Chavan
  • The provision of 'vote on account' has been mentioned in Article 116
  • Who was the first woman judge of Supreme Court - Fatima Biwi
  • Article 17 of the Constitution of  India lays down the provision of abolition
    of -Untouchability
  • In which Schedule to the constitution of India are the forms of oaths
    or affirmations enshrined  -Third Schedule
  • In Which part of the constitution is 'The Panchayat '  included -part IX
  • which article of the Constitution provides for the authoritative Text  of Constitution  of India in Hindi Language - Article 394-A
  • At Present the governor's salary stands at - Rs 110000 per month
  • the president of India can only ratify(that is ,cannot reject or return) -
    The Constitutional amendment bill
  • The pardoning power of the president includes -pardon,commutation,
    remission and reprieve
  • a person to be eligible for election as president should have
    completed the age of  -35 years
  • In the year 1990 ,by 65th constitutional amendment act ,
    which commission was established   - The National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
  • The judiciary was separated from the Executive in the public service by
    - The criminal procedure code 1973
  • The Directive principle of state policy are also rights of an individual
    but are - Non-Justifiable in nature
  • Who Said "What is called Directive Principles of State Policy is another name for the instrument of instructions " ? -Dr B R Ambedkar
  • The First Lokpal Bill was introduced in parliament in -May 1968
  • The Need for a separate parliament committee on public
    undertaking was first visualized by - Krishna Menon Committee
  • The Governor of a state can nominate to the state legislative council
    - One Sixth of total number of the members
  • Money Bill can be introduced in the legislature only on the
    recommendation of -The governor
  • The Supreme Court of India was set - By Regulating Act 1773
  • The Constituent Assembly of India elected Dr Rajendra Prasad as its first president on- January 24,1950
  • The Constituent Assembly held its first meeting on -Dec 19,1946
  • The first elected parliament of India with two Houses came into being in -May 1952
  • The Book- 'The Indian Constitution -Cornerstone of a Nation' is written by
    - Granville Austin
  • The Constitution of India is neither rigid nor flexible but - a synthesis of both
  • Who said that Indian Constitution is Quasi-Federal- K C Wheare
  • Directive Principle of State Polity are enumerated in - Part IV of the Constitution of India
  • The chapter of 'Fundamental Duties ' was added by 42nd Constitutional Act of 1976 on the recommendation of - The Swarn Singh Committee (1976)
  • Right to Constitutional Remedies is enshrined in - Article 32 of Indian Constitution
  • The Constitution of India stands for a secular state meaning that it upholds that -There is no official religion of Indian State


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13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


The revitalization of Pancha…

Q. What is the meaning of the terms like ‘Pardon’, ‘Reprieve’, ‘Respite’, ‘Remission’ and ‘Commutation’ with respect to the power of the President to grant pardon to convicted persons?

Ans. In terms of their scope and effect, these terms have specific connotations. The effect of Pardon is to abolish punishment and to absolve the convict of all charges. If Pardon is granted, it is assured as if the convict has not committed any crime. The convict will not face any disabilities due to the allegations and charges made against him. ‘Remission’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment. For example, the imprisonment for 20 years may be reduced to the imprisonment for 10 years. ‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. For example, punishment to death may be changed to life imprisonment. ‘Respite’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. For example, the punishment to death awarded to a pregnant woman, may be changed to simple life imprisonment. Respite means delay in execution of punishment especially that of death, in order to …



1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities


After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.


The dawn of 21st century is marked by decentralized governance both as a strategy and philosophy of brining about reforms and changes in democracies. These changes led to such virtues of transparency, responsiveness and accountability and ensures good governance. Today decentralization and democracy are the most significant themes in the development discourse. In the present contex…