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Tuesday, February 28, 2012

English Practice 01

Look at the following sentence from the story.
Suddenly a strong wind began to blow and along with the rain very large
hailstones began to fall.
‘Hailstones’ are small balls of ice that fall like rain. A storm in which
hailstones fall is a ‘hailstorm’. You know that a storm is bad weather with
strong winds, rain, thunder and lightning.
There are different names in different parts of the world for storms,
depending on their nature. Can you match the names in the box with
their descriptions below, and fill in the blanks? You may use a dictionary
to help you.
gale, whirlwind, cyclone,
hurricane, tornado, typhoon

1. A violent tropical storm in which strong winds move in a circle:
__ __ c __ __ __ __
2. An extremely strong wind : __ a __ __
3. A violent tropical storm with very strong winds : __ __ p __ __ __ __
4. A violent storm whose centre is a cloud in the shape of a funnel:
__ __ __ n __ __ __
5. A violent storm with very strong winds, especially in the western Atlantic
Ocean: __ __ r __ __ __ __ __ __
6. A very strong wind that moves very fast in a spinning movement and
causes a lot of damage: __ __ __ __ l __ __ __ __

Relative Clauses
Look at these sentences
(a) All morning Lencho — who knew his fields intimately — looked at
the sky.
(b) The woman, who was preparing supper, replied, “Yes, God willing.’’
The italicised parts of the sentences give us more information about Lencho
and the woman. We call them relative clauses. Notice that they begin with
a relative pronoun who. Other common relative pronouns are whom, whose,
and which.
The relative clauses in (a) and (b) above are called non-defining, because
we already know the identity of the person they describe. Lencho is a
particular person, and there is a particular woman he speaks to. We don’t
need the information in the relative clause to pick these people out from a
larger set.
A non-defining relative clause usually has a comma in front of it and a
comma after it (some writers use a dash (—) instead, as in the story). If the
relative clause comes at the end, we just put a full stop.
Join the sentences given below using who, whom, whose, which, as
1. I often go to Mumbai. Mumbai is the commercial capital of India. (which)
2. My mother is going to host a TV show on cooking. She cooks very
well. (who)

3. These sportspersons are going to meet the President. Their performance
has been excellent. (whose)
4. Lencho prayed to God. His eyes see into our minds. (whose)
5. This man cheated me. I trusted him. (whom)
Sometimes the relative pronoun in a relative clause remains ‘hidden’. For
example, look at the first sentence of the story:
(a) The house — the only one in the entire valley — sat on the crest of a
low hill.
We can rewrite this sentence as:
(b) The house — which was the only one in the entire valley — sat on
the crest of a low hill.
In (a), the relative pronoun which and the verb was are not present.
IV. Using Negatives for Emphasis
We know that sentences with words such as no, not or nothing show the
absence of something, or contradict something. For example:
(a) This year we will have no corn. (Corn will be absent)
(b) The hail has left nothing. (Absence of a crop)
(c) These aren’t raindrops falling from the sky, they are new coins.
(Contradicts the common idea of what the drops of water falling from
the sky are)
But sometims negative words are used just to emphasise an idea. Look at
these sentences from the story:
(d) Lencho…had done nothing else but see the sky towards the northeast.
(He had done only this)
(e) The man went out for no other reason than to have the pleasure of
feeling the rain on his body. (He had only this reason)
(f) Lencho showed not the slightest surprise on seeing the money.
(He showed no surprise at all)
Now look back at example (c). Notice that the contradiction in fact serves to
emphasise the value or usefulness of the rain to the farmer.
Find sentences in the story with negative words, which express the
following ideas emphatically.
1. The trees lost all their leaves.
2. The letter was addressed to God himself.
3. The postman saw this address for the first time in his career

Match the sentences  in Column A with the meanings of ‘hope in Column B
Column A
1.   Will you get the subjects you want to study in college? I hope so.
2.   I hope you don’t mind my saying this, but I don’t like the way you are arguing.
3.   This discovery will give new hope to HIV/AIDS sufferers.
4.   We were hoping against hope that the judges would not notice our mistakes.
5. I called early in the hope of speaking to her before she went to school.
6.   Just when everybody had given up hope, the fishermen came back, seven days after the cyclone.

Column B
–  a feeling that something good will probably happen
–  thinking that this would happen
(It may or may not have happened.)
–  stopped believing that this good thing would happen
–  wanting something to happen
(and thinking it quite possible)
–  showing concern that what you say should not offend or disturb the other person: a way of being polite
–  wishing for something to happen, although this is very unlikely

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