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America’s Motor City Detroit
Britain of the South New Zealand
China’s Sorrow River Hwang Ho
City of Dreaming Spires Oxford (England)
City of Eternal Springs Quito (S.America)
City of Flowers Cape Town (S.Africa)
City of Golden Gate San Francisco (USA)
City of Magnificient Buildings Washington (USA)
City of Quiet thoroughfares Venice
City of Seven Hills Rome (Italy)
City of Skyscrapers New York (USA)
Cockpit of Europe Belgium
Dark Continent Africa
Emerald Isle Ireland
Empire City New York
Eternal City of Hopes Rome, Italy
Forbidden City Lhasa (Tibet)
Garden City Chicago
Garden in the desert Ethiopia
Garden of England Kent (England)
Gate of tears Strait of bab-el-Mandeb
Golden City Johannesburg
Gibraltar of Indian Ocean Aden
Gift of Nile Egypt
Granite City Aberdeen
Hanging Valleys Valley of Switzerland
Hermit Kingdom Korea
Herring Pond Atlantic Ocean
Holy Land Palestine
Human Equator of the Earth Himalayas
Island Continent Australia
Island of Cloves Zanzibar
Island of Pearls Bahrain (Persian Gulf)
Islands of Sunshine West Indies
Kashmir of Europe Switzerland
Key to Mediterranean Gibraltar
Land of Five Seas South West Asia
Land of Lakes Scotland
Land of Golden Pagoda Myanmar
Land of Kangaroo Australia
Land of Golden Fleece Australia
Land of Lilies Canada
Land of Maple Canada
Land of Midnight Sun Norway
Land of Morning Calm Korea
Land of Rising Sun Japan
Land of Setting Sun United Kingdom
Land of Thousand Elephants Laos
Land of Thousand Lakes Finland
Land of Thunderbolt Bhutan
Land of White Elephant Thailand
Loneliest Island Tristan De Gumha
(Mid. Atlantic)
Manchester of Japan Osaka (Japan)
Pillars of Hercules Straits of Gibraltar
Play Ground of Europe Switzerland
Quaker City Philadelphia
Queen of the Adriatic Venice
Roof of the World The pamirs (Tibet)
River in the Sea Gulf Stream
Sickman of Europe Turkey
Sugar Bowl of the world Cuba
Venice of the East Bangkok
Venice of the North Stockholm
White City Belgrade
Windy City Chicago
Workshop of Europe Belgium
World’s Loneliest Island Tristan Da Cunha
Yellow River River Hwang Ho


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13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


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1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities


After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.


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