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19.2 Approaches to Development

19.2.1 GNP Approach

19.2.2 Capital Formation Approach


19.2.4 Basic Minimum Need Approach


9.4 of DevelopmentReports

19.5 Computing the Index

19.6 Development in

19.7 .
19.8 Exercises


The issue of has been central social sciences discourses for a time. Its
I content, form and meaning had sea changes particularly with the emergence and
. maturity of as the first Global System. The US President, Harry S.
through Point launched on January 1949, assigned to it its present meaning. Before that it was used in a limited sense particularly with reference to species, to real estate to moves the game of chess. Hereafter, it was used to refer to people, to countries and to strategies. It a paradigm in the true sense of the term. Today development is used in a wider context. It is used as a reason state, a of regimes, a power relation and above all philosophy and ideology of the state. there a spate of 'development theories', formation of 'development communities' and of 'development epochs or decades'. However, there was something than other aspects of It was related to the use of development for peace and for establishing global hegemony. developed countries
, mostly the group of former colonisers also 'North' succeeded in constructing
and defining a particular way within the limits of certain parameters and
thereafter tried to the other countries and through a single yardstick. Countries and communities that failed to qualify in accordance to the norms outlined in the
were subjected to various types of manipulations and Mast these interventions were against the history, culture and popular will of the people. One yardstick is the concept idea of "Human Development".


19.2 HUMAN

Many scholars and tried to evolve various approaches to and define human development at various times in the past. Some of the debated ones are:


It is often said that is or Wealth or of a person or of a nation is only a good indicator of their range of choices they can exercise also of the realm of freedom and possibilities. is not only an asset in the hands of a person it is also the totality of his being in a where 'having determines ones' being'. This is perhaps'one of simplest and once upon a time widely used approach for measuring development. According to approach the total produce of the country is converted into money value and divided by the total population of country. A higher per capita income will indicate a higher level of human development. But, in recent times this approach has come under severe criticism for a variety of reasons:

is only a means and not an in itself. Higher need not necessarily mean better quality of life. Well being of an individual and society depends upon the use to which is put on the level of income alone. of a drug addict, a sick person, and a country engaged in prolonged war and
internal conflicts not show better level of well-being.

Income takes into account only the material aspects of the social assets and it does not take into account the non-material components. Well-being largely depends upon the opportunities and capabilities available individual in a particular society, which in turn is based on the nature of "social capital as a feature of social organisation, such as trust, norms and networks, that improve the coordinated action of an individual in a society".

Income of a country or an individual at a particular point of time is incapable of assessing
I the potentialities and growth prospects in future. Countries that have made good investments in resource development such as in imparting education and
may indicate low levels of but higher potential in future than countries that higher level of at present but spend little on such investments.

Higher income with higher disparities will indicate relatively lower levels of well- being than medium income with low level of disparities. experiences of the countries show that high levels of at modest levels and poor levels of development at fairly high income levels.

To sum up, it can be safely stated that between income and development is direct nor automatic. and GNP are at best necessary but not sufficient
conditions for development.


Capital Formation Approach I
Capital Formation is also known as Human Resource Development Approach. It; looks at human beings as means rather than as ends. These theories are mainly concerned with the supply side and consider beings as instruments in extending the expended commodity reproductions. Once again, there is no denial of the fact that it is primarily human ability to produce that distinguishes them from rest of the species in the animal kingdom but this is a very narrow view of productive potentials. Apart from commodity production human beings are also creators of their own history which is not only a unique but a most significant feat as far as of worth is concerned. One of the two principal contradictions of all the class societies was denial of this realisation
to a majority of human are important actors in the saga of human history. To be recognised as a distinct identity is to receiving any distributive justice, which in turn is intricately related to quality of life and well-being. This is perhaps one message that has come clear and loud the fall of former Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Pretoria and Iraq etc. at the beginning of the twenty first century that, "every thing else is negotiable except the right to be recognised". Redistribution and recognition have become the inseparable components of human freedom in this century. Thus the concept of Human Resource Development captures only the smaller part of human creativity and misses the most important one.

19.2.3 Human Welfare Approach

This'approach has gained popularity with the maturity of the modern welfare states. It looks at beings as the beneficiary of development rather than participants in
the process. At a glance, this approach appears to be in the interest of general well-being
and common good. But a critical insight into structural logic reveals that various welfare measures carried out by the different states world over are prompted under the compulsion . of gaining legitimacy and from the masses. It was primarily in the aftermath of the French Revolution when there occurred a paradigm in the nature of social power. was followed by a in the source of from the almighty to common man, which in turn was accompanied by a in the nature of class rule. Hereafter, class rule was replaced by hegemonic control, use of open violence by structural violence, and brutal power by capillary power relation. Consequently, naked exploitation gave way to control and Therefore, a most ideal welfare state represents
one that uses violence and capillary forces to exercise hegemonic control over its people. Consequently, what may appear as welfare measures to many are quintessentially components of hegernonic control and aspects of Educational and health facilities given by many states world over in name of welfare measures are best examples of exercising structural control and governmentality.

19.2.4 Basic Minimum Need Approach

This is one of the most important and also rigorously debated approaches. It was initially proposed by International Labour Organisation (ILO) as a measure of adequacy of a development process. ILO has identified six basic needs namely health, education, food, water supply, sanitation and housing. It basically concentrates the bundle of goods, commodities and services that the deprived population groups needs rather than the issue of

human choices. It is because of such a crass existential approach toward such a sensitive and human issue like human development that this has been criticised by many. Some of the important issues raised by this approach are:

Who determines basic needs? Is it the people, government or the organ of the state? Is it possible for any one to lay down a basket of commodities that people should regard as basic? For example, the considers employment a basic need; according to Sidney Webb it includes leisure; in China it is a decent funeral; and others may consider safety as a basic necessity.

Is the concept of basic needs subjective or objective? How to resolve the differences that emerge due to the position one occupies in the market? Looking at it from the supply side it may be possible to suggest objectively specified quantities of goods, and services such as food, clothing, shelter, water and sanitation that are essential to prevent ill health. But from the demand side there may be differences in the ordering of the items in the bundle along with the level of satisfaction each consumer derives the items in the bundle.

Do basic needs refer to conditions for a long and healthy life of a specific bundle of goods and that are deemed to provide opportunity for these conditions? What is the basis to assume that basic needs expressed by the consumers has a knowledge of and free access to market and they not gullible to temptations created by misinformation through advertisement etc? Moreover, how can one that selection of the bundle of basic needs is a result of their will and rational choice and these are not made under pressures, enticements, fears and cajolery etc?

What is the purpose of participation? What form should it take? How does a right to participate (if it exists) relate to the structures necessary for efficient implementation of the basic needs approach? Participation of people is seen as a major advancement towards their empowerment and well-being. But, the question is whether it is a means or an end? What is the purpose of participation? Is it for personal satisfaction, work enrichment, greater efficiency to improve results including cost community development or promotion of solidarity etc? Similarly, what should be the nature and form of participation?

What is the relationship between the redistribution approach to development and the basic needs approach? Does the basic needs approach require systematic change or it is palliative? Participationdoes not always mean empowerment and democratisation. The annals of history prove that autocrats and dictators too encouraged participation of workers, scholars, politicians, scientists and philosophers through highly undemocratic means. The findings of the Committee Report on the of Panchayati System in India also proved that devolution of powers at the lower levels have proved counter productive in the spread of democratic ethos in the country and this system of governance consolidated the hegemony of the rural potentates with additional power at their disposal. Moreover, it is also a common experience of most of the elected democracies that leadership very seldom represents the masses. Most of the leaders who succeed in getting elected are manipulators and rather than grass root level mass workers. They emerge as leaders through manoeuvres instead of a real mass movement.

The experiences of the western democracies too prove that labour aristocracy had detrimental upon the working class these fonn these the questions this approach need to answer are:

Whether basic needs are an end in it self or they are instruments for developing human resources?
In the age of globalisation, will be the role of the forces of globalisation
international support in the basic needs? Finally,

What is the relation between poverty eradication reducing income inequalities?

A.K. is one of the articulate critics of the Basic Needs Approach. According him the need, satisfaction, happiness and based present a one-sided view only. is a and process and he conceptualises it in of 'Capabilities'. are like text, open for multiple interpretations and appropriations. A given quantity and quality of food basket has different significance for different consumers. uses utilities taken fiom the given basket of food will depend upon the sex, age, health, rate of metabolism, state of the physical and health of the (for example a pregnant and a lactating mother), of work, climate of the place, level of knowledge about nutritive of various food items rate of loss of through different cooking etc all will be determined by the capabilities of the also argues that development should not be judged fiom the degree of freedom enjoys in having different options to select fiom which is the most important aspect of well-being. In of his arguments he places the examples of a starving beggar, a fasting monk Gandhi strike. According to him the last two the fasting and on strike have capabilities and they the to exercise their option. It is only the starving pauper lacks and has low levels of development.

It is evident from the above discussion that the basic needs approach has severely criticised by scholars and many expressed their in favour of a approach to define human Capability, and are the three non-negotiable acceplable criteria laid by many. But, in way are these agreeable to all. Frances Stewart suggested human development should be assessed in terms of objective observable achievements rather in terms of subjective parameters like, happiness, freedom and choice etc.

the backdrop of these debates, claims and claims, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) tried to define and human development. It was in 1990 that the UNDP finally up with its own definition and notion of development.


"As process of e of people
for education, care, covering full of choices from to

For many it appear a simple easy exercise to arrive at a consensus in evolving a definition of a concept like as far as UNDP is concerned,

was any thing but an easy and simple exercise. The first report on human development prepared by the made it explicit:

"This is about people- and about enlarges chuices. It is more than growth, more income and wealth and than producing accumulating capital. A person's access to income may be one of choice, but it is not sum total of

"Human Development is a of choices. most critical these choices are to live a long healthy life, to
. be erlucated and to access to resources for a decent of living. Additional choices include political freedonz, guaranteed rights

The other issues of concern that find mention in the reports are:

Development enables people to have these choices though no one can guarantee others.

Development should aim at creating conducive environment for people, to develop their potential and to have a reasonable chance of leading productive and creative lives in accord with their needs and interests.

Development should concern more than the formation of human capabilities, such as improved health or knowledge and it should focus more on the realisation of these
. capabilities in every possible spheres of our social life.

Human freedom is vital for human development. People must be free to express their choices.

Human development is not only the satisfaction of basic needs but also of human development as a participatory and dynamic process. It is applicable to both the developed and the developing countries.

The other and most significant aspect of the report was the identification of certain key indicators of human development, their measuremerit and preparation of human development index for the countries of the world.


At the world level, the United Nations' Development Programme was the apex body to prepare a Human Development Report for all the countries. It was felt that measuring the progress of various countries on the single criterion GNP has too many limitations to be used as the basis of comparison. Many scholars looked for a more
socio-economic measure because they believed that:

Development is about - and about how development enlarges
I . their choices. is nbout more than and wealth
more than producing accumulating capital. A person's access to income be one of but it is not the of human

The 1990 report was. the First endeavour in this direction. This report identified three essential elements of human life: Longevity, decent living standards.


Life expectancy at birth is the indicator for measuring longevity. The theoretical justification provided for selecting life expectancy lies in a belief that human is most precious and long life is priceless amongst all human achievements. It is both the means as well as the end. Long lie is closely associated with adequate nutrition, good health and personal safety.

, Knowledge

is power" is an old saying. Literacy is a person's first step in learning and knowledge building. Therefore, a literate person has greater access to power than an illiterate. Moreover, the importance of literacy has been enhanced in the age of technology because it is no more considered an achievement of an but the of one's existence.

Decent living standard

It is an accepted that command over resources is a must for decent living but it is one of the most difficult to measure. .Themost readily available indicator is per capita income, But it has a wide national' coverage and variations along with other serious anomalies. using real GDP per capita provides better approximation
the relative power to buy and to gain command over resources for a decent living standard. .

is understood that the above-mentioned three indicators have limitations to the level of macro of averages it is based upon. At the time these are also less sensitive to the regional, gender, historical and class that are most significant in the measurement of these indicators. Moreover, it has also been criticised for positioning human development against growth, its over emphasis on rather overall growth and leanings the countries whose primary goal is to satisfy their basic needs,
its applicability in case of the developed countries.

Though, the overall conceptualisation and definitions of human development remained unchanged for the next two years, yet, in the report of attentionwas paid to link human development with some other components. These were concept of sustained development, of the creative energies of all through competitive and efficient markets and adverse impacts of discriminatory policies particularly ,
the immigration policy adopted by the developed countries which are largely responsible
for the continuing disparities between the rich and poor countries and low level of

development in the developing countries. The important highlights of this report were:

"One of the great lessons of recent is tlznt competitive are best guarantees for development, open up opportunities for creative enterprises they increase tlze access of people to
of economic clzoices".

It also recognised the discriminatory and less responsive approaches followed by the rich countries. It is mentioned in the report that:

is irony public enterprises opening up consumers' demands is replacing globnl market is restrictive. The developed countries not opening their markets to tlte products of poor countries".

. Thus, market reforms and human development were linked with each other in this report.

There was some sort of paradigm shift from the last years and the published in 1993. People's participation their security were the major issues in the Human Development Report of 1993. It also emphasised on progressive democratisation and increasing empowerment of people as conditions for human development. report indicated that: 'development must be woven around people, not people development'. It mentioned that the power of development lies in the development of people's empowerment. The report recognised greater constructive role of 'Civil Societies' in bringing about peace and human development. According to the report, "A vibrant and vigilant civil society must stress on security of the people rather that of a nation". It should work for up an opinion for reduction in the military expenditure, of armed forces, transition from defence to production of basic services and particularly and reduction in the nuclear warheads by the developed countries etc. In a world, peace and well-being ark major global concerns. So long as threats of mass annihilation looms large over our head, insecurity and apprehensions will not allow peace, goodwill and compassion for fellow beings to prevail in the world. It also dictatorship and militaiy rulers are greatest threats to human development. As opposed to this, vibrant civil society insures relatively better opportunitiesfor peace

The paradigm that was envisaged in the1993 report was consolidated in reports of
1994 and 1995. Sustainable Developinent was the new buzzword. It gave new meaning to life itself The report mentioned; does not value it produces goods because it values life positive steps to eliminate all kinds of discriminations,The most important aspect of the of 1994 was and conceptual changes in the construction of Human relating to variable.

"No child should be to a short life or a miserable,one merely because that child happens to be born in a or in a or to of wrong sex". It out the details of securityconcerns that continue to the life globally and suggested effective to each type of such as economic, food, health,

environment, personal, community, and political security. Moreover, terrorism was also recognised as an to human well being and human development for the first time.

Gender equality was the theme of the Development Report in 1995. opportunity to all, particularly to females was the prime concern. It mentioned that,
is The findings of the report are but
of the important findings revealed in the are: ,

a face"-roughly 70 per cent in the world live in poverty. Removing gender inequality has nothing to do with national income. I
While doors of education and health opportunities have opened rapidly for women,
the door to economic and political opportunities are barely ajar.

Women receive share of credit banking institutions. It is as low as 7-11 per cent in case of Latin America.

Women receive much lower wages than men.

All regions have higher rate of unemployment of women.

In developing countries women constitute only of the administrative and management jobs.

Women occupy only 10 per cent seats in parliament as cabinet ministers. In 55 countries there are no or below 5 per women in parliament.
A major index of neglect reveals that many contributions made by women are
grossly under valued or not valued magnitude of this omission is to the tune
of $1 billion a year.

Discriminationagainst women and their devaluation begins even before life begins. It starts early in life and continues through out. of women in countries like Netherlands, New Norway, and USA report sexual abuse during childhood. Over a million children in Asia and mostly girls, are forced into prostitution every

Violence against women becomes of marriage. In some women suffer domestic violence. Sometimes it is manifested in the form of rape In Canada, USA, New and one out of every six women is raped in her lifetime. It
end in murder or in suicide.

However, the most important aspect of the of 1995 was methodological and conceptual changes in the construction of Human Development Index to variable. two changes made in this report: ,

The first was related to level of knowledge and awareness. Till 1994 Mean Year of Schooiing as an for estimating the level of literacy was replaced by the combined, primary, secondary and level enrolment ratio.

The second change was related the lowering of the value of income to

Finally the report concluded that if' half of humanity such gender discriminations, then any talk about development is not only worthless but is also violence against the gender. The report taok note of the gravity of the situation and initiated the processes of computing Gender Equity Sensitive Index or Gender Related Development Index (GDI) along with Human Development Index.

The report published in the subsequent year likened human development to economic growth. It 'human development as the end and growth as the means'. But it also warned that there is no direct link between the two. In fact on the basis of the last 15 years performance the report concluded that some countries have made spectacular economic advancement but some have registered unprecedented decline. As a result, the disparities have increased. Consequently there emerged two diametrically opposite worlds in an otherwise uni-polar world. It also revealed that of the $23 Trillion Global GDP in
1993, $1 8 trillion was in the countries and only $5 trillion was in the developing
countries, though the latter had 80 per cent of world's population. It warned that short- term advancements in human development are possible but they will not be sustainable without further growth. Conversely, economic growth is not sustainable without human development.

The 1997 report poverty eradication as the necessary step for development. focus was not just on poverty but poverty from the development perspective. Apart from broadly agreeing with the definition of poverty stated in the 1990 human development report, this report included additional choices of 'political freedom, human rights and respect' including what Adam called ability to mix with other without being ashamed to appear in public" as elements of development. It critically looked at all the three perspectives on poverty:

Income perspective,

Basic needs perspective, and

Capacity perspective.

The most significant aspect of this report was outlining the criteria of ill-being which is so very important to assess capacity building and measurement of well-being. These include:

Being and sick), stock,
Being to bury tlteir ones,

Being unable to to

more to to
Lacking able in housing,

Being in people" social

to put in

Being single

security only in a year, Being on property
An important feature of this report was preparing Human Poverty Index (HPI-1) and (HPI-2) for the developed and the developing countries respectively. It concentrated on deprivation in three of human life already reflected in the longevity, knowledge and a decent standard of living. The deprivation related to these indicators were:

Deprivation related to survival-vulnerability to death at a relatively early age.

Relating to knowledge-being excluded the world of reading and communication, and;
Relating to decent living people below poverty line.
The report in 1998 was different the previous reports in more than one sense. The major concern of all the previous reports was centred around increasing consumptions and meeting basic needs. This report blamed spurious patterns by some countries responsible for low levels of well-being world over. Therefore, it on changing today's consumption pattern for tomorrow's human development. The highlights that world consumption has expanded at an unprecedented pace over it $ 24 trillion mark in 1998 which was $12 trillion in 1975, $4 trillion in 1960 and $1.5 trillion in
1900. Consumption is an essential means for development but the relationship is not automatic. The present trends of global consumption reveals that it has in the developed
countries which adversely the level of well-being in the developing countries mainly in the following ways:

Overt and consumption by the rich have created the conditions of induced
scarcity in which artificially pushed up the prices of .
and making these beyond the reach of commons.

It does not only create scarcity at present but is likely to be more acute for the future generations.

Present consumption patterns have become inimical to human development as it is undermining the environmental reserve base. Therefore, it is jeopardising the prospects of generations.

It has resulted in exacerbating over space and generations. .

There exits a dynamic nexus among consumption-poverty-inequality- environmental degradation.
Environmental Pollution, ecological crises have become the natural allies of consumption. I
Sustainable development should be based on a change in the production technology.

To change in consumption patterns, a reduction in the subsidies provided by the developed countries to their producers is a

in the mind set is imperative for sustainable development. "Thinking globally and
acting locally" holds the key to human development in the century.

The culmination of the century witnessed consolidation of globalisation as an inevitable process. Therefore, the best way to come into terms with this was to emphasise on the human dimension of it. Though globalisation was not a new phenomenon yet, the recent phase has distinct features. The collapse of Berlin wall and fall of iron curtains did not only bring an end to the large of the former Socialist World, but there was also a shrinking of space, time and disappearance of boundaries. It appeared as if the world has collapsed into a small global village linking people's life intensely, more deeply and immediately than ever before. Globalisation offers new opportunities for human advancements but its advantages can be availed only by those who have strong governance: those equipped with new market, new tools and techniques, new actors, new rule and ultimately new people. This is the age of globalisation where only the powerful have the right Fierce and relentless of global competition is squeezing out the of human development. Thus, it has serious repercussions on the overall
security environment. Therefore, the report reflected the needs of providing a human face to human development.

The report of 2000 started a strong and uncompromising commitment to human rights, freedom and solidarity in order to bring in the human touch to globalisation. It stated that human rights and human development share a common vision and common purpose to secure freedom, well-being and dignity of all people everywhere. It talked of

Freedom discrimination-by gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, origin and religion

Freedom fear of threat to personal security, from torture, arbitrary arrest, and other violent acts

Freedom to develop and realise ones human potentialities

Freedom from injustice and violation of the rule of law

Freedom and speech and to participate in decision making and forming associations and

Freedom for decent work without exploitation.

This report also made attempts to evolve an encompassing definition of human development. Human development means:

"To to tlze of living. But, tlze realm of to of choice highly valued by security, sustainability,
being self respect,
a sense of belonging to

And to define human development in sentence it is "development of for by tlze people".

The 2001 development report tried to link development to technology. It acknowledged that technology networks are transforming the traditional map of development. It is expanding people's horizons and creating the potentials to realise a decade's progress in a week's time that required generations in the past. But technology is a double-edged sword or to put it differently it is a good servant and bad master. It is primarily the use control over technology by some powerful countries of the world that has subjugated large number of other countries to positions of permanent subjugation servitude of a nation. Countries, communities individuals that are slow and at the receiving of innovation are constantly haunted by the fear of and redundancy and ultimately being a permanent to a fast
changing world. This gravely affects the well-being and sense of self respect among the individual.

The 2002 adds a dimension to human development. It is a report about politics human It is about how political power
formal and informal, national and international- shape human progress. It shows about deepening democracies a fragmented world. According to report that empowers people must be built on the confidence and resources of the people and it cannot be It is against model of democracy to all over the country. respect for difference is the heart of democracy and

The report of 2003 makes a bold beginning by setting Development Goals: a compact to end poverty". According to the declaration made by the heads of the states, it is every state to 'attack inadequate income, widespread hunger, gender inequality, deterioration and lack of education, health care and clean water. They also include actions to reduce debt increase aid, and technology transfer to poorer countries". of the and Targets outlined in the report are:

Eradicate extreme poverty and


Promote gender equality empower



Reduce number of people by 50 per between 1990 and 2015 whose is less than $1.

Reduce the of people by similar percentage who are suffering

Ensure that all children will be to
schooling by 2015

Eliminate gender inequality in primary and secondary education by 2005 and in all levels by 2015

Reduce mortality below 5 year by third, between 1990-2015

Improve maternal heal

by 1990-2015
mortality ratio by three fourth

Combat malaria and other diseases

Ensure environmental sustainability
Halted by 2015 in case of

Halt incidence of and other disease by

Make policies as basis of national planning and reverse the process of

Reduce the ratio of people by 50 per cent that do not have sustainableaccess to safe drinking

Improve the lives of 100 million dwellers by 2020.

Develop a global partnership for
Develop an open, rural based non - discriminatory trading system
Address the needs of least developed countries.

small island states
Deal with debt
, of developing countries.

Collaboration the developed countries for productive of youth

Provision for cheap and essential drugs to poorer countries

Pal-tilership between the private sector for the diffusion of new production and information technology.

It is evident the brief and of the development reports presented by the that attempts have been made to all'the possible aspects in the that concern human well-being and developmentworld ovec have also tried to interrogate the new challenges that threatened well-being, peace, security and world over. But it is to notice that only three indicatorswere selected in computingthe Final I-Iuman DevelopmentIndex.

It was mentioned earlier that the UNDP was well aware of the importance of taking and relevant indicatorsfor a as human It

made various attempts to make it as relevant as possible. I-Iowever, it had to to three only. The justification provided for the same in the UNDP states:

"The ideal would be to reflect all aspects of experience.The lack of data limits on and more indicators could perhaps be added as the becomes available. But more indicators would not necessarilybe better,
some might overlap indicators: mortality for is already reflected in life expectancy. adding more variables could picture and detractfrom main trends".

the selection of the indicators, crucial aspect is to prepare a Human Development Index to the of each terms of the level of well-being. For this purpose preparing a development index is the significantand crucial aspect.


As mentioned earlier changes were in the selection of indicators for the
in the of 1995. Till 1994 Mean Year of Schooling was as an indicator for the level of literacy. In the report of 1995 this indicator was replaced by combined, and tertiary level ratio, justification
provided in the report.was in getting data along lack of compatibility
among the data supplied by different countries. The second change was incorporated was related to lowering down the value of GDP (income) per capita from to

again the provided in the report was to include those countries have PPP below $200. It was noticed in the previous reports a large number of countries mostly forming a of colonies have PPP below $200 but these have large variationsamong them.

According to the report publishedin 2002, is a of It
the average in a in three basic dimensionsof Human Development:

A long and healthy life, as by life expectancy at birth.

Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (withtwo-third and primary, secondary tertiary gross enrolment ratio (with one-third weight).

A decent standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita (PPP US$),

, It is also felt that "Before the HDI is calculated, an index need to be created for each of these dimensions". Therefore, it was also felt that and values (also as the Goal Post) be chosen for each indicator.

The Goal Posts fixed for year 2002 are as follows:

Indicator Maximum value value

Life expectancy at birth (years) 85 (for a 25 (for a country)
Adult literacy rate (percentage) 100 0
Combined gross ratio (percentage) 100 0
GDP per capita (PPP US$) 40,000

To illustrate each of the indicatorsin case of Ivory Coast for the year 2000:
Life expectancy at birth in years: 47.80

Adult literacy rate : 46.80
Gross rate : 38.00

GDP per capita in PPP US $ 1630

Calculating life expectancy Index: 47.8 - 251 85 - 25 = 0.380

Calculating Adult literacy Index = 46.8 - - 00 =
Calculating Gross Index = 38 - - 00 = *

Calculating the GDP index =log 630)- log (40000) 100 = 0.466

Calculating = 1 (value of life expectancy index) + of education index)+ (value of GDP


India, many developing countries,has a well-developed statistical Thanks to the colonial our countries there are a lot of agencies have collecting and data various aspects of our polity, environment and resources etc over a long time period. most prominentagencies are: National Population Census, National Health Survey, Registration System, National Sample Survey etc. It was however, though these agencies are significantly in obtaining
. information on different aspects, the coordination and is not directly relatedto each otlzer as as data generationis To of NCAER:

I detailed informntion otlzer It on
pnttern It tuns that covering of level of living, and

wages, literacy services PDS, etc, and characteristics be a survey
to between better

As result today we have human development report at the national level published every
The exercise has become so popular among the planners scholars that
states like Pradesh, etc have also prepased for the respective states. It is interesting to note that the unit of analysis case are the districts. aspect reportsis they tried to incorporate India and state specific indicators for preparing the Report. For example the State has following indicators:

and child mortality rate. Nutrition (below 2 years of Age).
HDI and per capita district domestic production (at prices). Literacy rate, year of schooling and dropout rate. Achievementand improvementindices for literacy 1991-2001.
indices for IMR 1981 1991.

District wise classification of village amenities.

Percentagedistributionof census houses by Pucca and houses having facilitiesavailable.

obtained is used to classify different districts on the basis HDI, which in is used to guide various policy options state central

is one of indicators of the of countries. It be in of wealth of a a country possesses,
facilities and welfare measures that a offers to its people or of the six basic
needs internationallyidentified as education, food, water supply, sanitation and should be ultimate of each and every activity state, the objective
of all scientificinvestigations above all interactionbetween individuals partners.
this particular aspect most neglectedso has been resurgence in the interest on developlnent in years. Many scholars and leaders at the world level to work towards improving the quality of life without discrimination,The United attempted to define the of development for the first in 1990. It has also tried to work out broadly agreeable indicatorsof human development and preparation of index. it continues to improvisethese concepts witn new challenge it faces. But, it is unfortunatethat for want of adequate data and it relies an indirect methods of Moreover, it come to notice that the global powers are using developmentindex for interveninginto internal


'affairs of sovereign states. Therefore,human development is a noble concept and preparation of is a noble exercise but in an unequal world it is also used for ulterior motives.


1) What do you understand by human development? What are the various approaches to the studyof human development?

2) What is the Basic Needs approach towards human development? Why is this approach criticised?

3) Identify the indicators of human What are the otherconceptsand dimensions that have been linked by the Human Development Reports to concept of human development?

4) Write a short note on development in


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13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


The revitalization of Pancha…

Q. What is the meaning of the terms like ‘Pardon’, ‘Reprieve’, ‘Respite’, ‘Remission’ and ‘Commutation’ with respect to the power of the President to grant pardon to convicted persons?

Ans. In terms of their scope and effect, these terms have specific connotations. The effect of Pardon is to abolish punishment and to absolve the convict of all charges. If Pardon is granted, it is assured as if the convict has not committed any crime. The convict will not face any disabilities due to the allegations and charges made against him. ‘Remission’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment. For example, the imprisonment for 20 years may be reduced to the imprisonment for 10 years. ‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. For example, punishment to death may be changed to life imprisonment. ‘Respite’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. For example, the punishment to death awarded to a pregnant woman, may be changed to simple life imprisonment. Respite means delay in execution of punishment especially that of death, in order to …



1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities


After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.


The dawn of 21st century is marked by decentralized governance both as a strategy and philosophy of brining about reforms and changes in democracies. These changes led to such virtues of transparency, responsiveness and accountability and ensures good governance. Today decentralization and democracy are the most significant themes in the development discourse. In the present contex…