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Q. What is Contingency Fund and what is its purpose?

Ans. According to the provisions of Article 267(1), Parliament may by law establish a Contingency Fund of India in the nature of an imprest. Such sums of money shall be deposited into this fund as may be determined by law made by Parliament. The Contingency Fund of India shall be placed at the disposal of the President who shall make advances out of this fund to meet unforeseen expenditure pending authorization by Parliament. The money withdrawn out of Contingency Fund is paid back to it as and when Parliament authorizes such unforeseen expenditure. The basic purpose behind this fund is to meet some immediate and urgent expenditure which can not be authorised immediately by Parliament.

Similarly, under the provisions of Article 267(2) the Legislature of a State by law may establish a Contingency Fund of the State in the nature of an imprest. Such sums of money shall be paid into this fund as is determined by the law made by the State Legislature. This fund shall be placed at the disposal of the Governor who can make advances out of this fund to meet some unforeseen expenditure, pending authorization of such expenditure by the State Legislature.
The Government of India or of a State cannot make any expenditure out of the Consolidated Funds without the authorisation of such expenditure by Parliament or the State Legislature, as the case may be. If a situation may arise when the money is needed to meet some unexpected expenditure and the concerned Legislature will take time to authorize such expenditure, the money can be taken out the Contingency Fund by the President or the Governor to meet such urgent expenditure.


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13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


The revitalization of Pancha…

Q. What is the meaning of the terms like ‘Pardon’, ‘Reprieve’, ‘Respite’, ‘Remission’ and ‘Commutation’ with respect to the power of the President to grant pardon to convicted persons?

Ans. In terms of their scope and effect, these terms have specific connotations. The effect of Pardon is to abolish punishment and to absolve the convict of all charges. If Pardon is granted, it is assured as if the convict has not committed any crime. The convict will not face any disabilities due to the allegations and charges made against him. ‘Remission’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment. For example, the imprisonment for 20 years may be reduced to the imprisonment for 10 years. ‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. For example, punishment to death may be changed to life imprisonment. ‘Respite’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. For example, the punishment to death awarded to a pregnant woman, may be changed to simple life imprisonment. Respite means delay in execution of punishment especially that of death, in order to …



1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities


After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.


The dawn of 21st century is marked by decentralized governance both as a strategy and philosophy of brining about reforms and changes in democracies. These changes led to such virtues of transparency, responsiveness and accountability and ensures good governance. Today decentralization and democracy are the most significant themes in the development discourse. In the present contex…