Skip to main content

Q. What are the Consolidated Fund of the State and the Consolidated Fund of India?

Ans. According to Article 266. there shall a Consolidated Fund of India at the Centre and a Consolidated Fund of the State in each State The Consolidated Fund of India shall consist of all moneys realized  through all revenues received by Government of India, all loans raised by that government by issue of treasury Bills, loans or ways and means advances and all moneys received by that government in repayment of loans,
Similarly, all revenues received by the Government of a State, all loans raised by that government by the issue of treasury Bills, loans or ways and means advances and all moneys received by that government in repayment of loans shall form part of the ‘Consolidated Fund of the State’.
As per the provisions of Article 112, the following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India
(i) the emoluments and allowances of the President and other expenditure relating to his office;
(ii) the salaries and allowances of the Chairman and the Dy. Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and Dy Speaker of the House of the People;
(iii) debt charges for which Government of India is liable including interests, sinking fund charges and redemption charges, and other expenditure relating to the raising of loans and the service and redemption of debt;
(iv) the salaries and pensions pay able in respect to judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts;
(v) the salary and pension ‘payable to the Comptroller and Auditor General of India;
(vi) any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award of any court or arbitral tribunal; and
(vii) any other expenditure declared by this Constitution or by Parliament by law so charged.
The significance of any expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India is that such expendiure becomes non-votable part of the Budget, which is not subject to the votes of Parliament and thus it cannot ,e reduced through cut motions.
As per the provisions of Article 267(3), no amount of money can be withdrawn fm the Consolidated Fund of India or of a State except for the purposes and through the proced ure prescribed by the Constitution or law.


Popular posts from this blog



13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


The revitalization of Pancha…

Q. What is the meaning of the terms like ‘Pardon’, ‘Reprieve’, ‘Respite’, ‘Remission’ and ‘Commutation’ with respect to the power of the President to grant pardon to convicted persons?

Ans. In terms of their scope and effect, these terms have specific connotations. The effect of Pardon is to abolish punishment and to absolve the convict of all charges. If Pardon is granted, it is assured as if the convict has not committed any crime. The convict will not face any disabilities due to the allegations and charges made against him. ‘Remission’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment. For example, the imprisonment for 20 years may be reduced to the imprisonment for 10 years. ‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. For example, punishment to death may be changed to life imprisonment. ‘Respite’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. For example, the punishment to death awarded to a pregnant woman, may be changed to simple life imprisonment. Respite means delay in execution of punishment especially that of death, in order to …



1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities


After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.


The dawn of 21st century is marked by decentralized governance both as a strategy and philosophy of brining about reforms and changes in democracies. These changes led to such virtues of transparency, responsiveness and accountability and ensures good governance. Today decentralization and democracy are the most significant themes in the development discourse. In the present contex…