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Q.What are the constitutional provisions with respect to prevention of prostitution?

Ans. Articles 23 and 24 of Part III of the Constitution provide to every person the Fundamental Right against exploitation. Article 23 prohibits the traffic in human beings and practice of forced labor. This indicates  that  the person cannot be sold or purchased like trading goods. In Rajbahadur Vs. Legal Remem. benser (1953) the Supreme Court cstablished that the use of women and children for immoral activities shall be considered as traffic in human beings.
Keeping in view the provisions of Article 23, the Government of India enacted the Suppression of immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act, 1956. But it generated a new controversy with two contradictions between the provisions of Article 23 and the freedoms guaranteed under Article 19. The controversy was decided by the High Court, Allahabad in Shamabal Vs. State of U.P. case in 1959. The court held that in a situation where the provisions of Article 23 come in conflict with the freedom provided under Article 19, the former shall prevail.


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13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


The revitalization of Pancha…

Q. What is the meaning of the terms like ‘Pardon’, ‘Reprieve’, ‘Respite’, ‘Remission’ and ‘Commutation’ with respect to the power of the President to grant pardon to convicted persons?

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1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities


After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.


The dawn of 21st century is marked by decentralized governance both as a strategy and philosophy of brining about reforms and changes in democracies. These changes led to such virtues of transparency, responsiveness and accountability and ensures good governance. Today decentralization and democracy are the most significant themes in the development discourse. In the present contex…