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Political Terms

Adjournment Motion—Usually, the Legislature transacts its business according to the given agenda, but a matter of urgent public importance can be brought before the Legislature and discussed through Adjournment Motion by interrupting its regular business. An Adjournment Motion should be supported by not less than 50 members of the House for being accepted. If accepted, it results in stopping the ongoing business of the House and discussing the matter raised in the Adjournment Motion. The basic idea behind this motion is to give an opportunity to the House to discuss a matter of urgent public importance. The matter should also be of de1ini nature and should have factual basis. The discussion on the matter takes place at 1600 hours and continues for two and half hours. At the end of discussion, voting takes place. Since voting exposes the government strength in the House, the ruling party tries not to allow the acceptance of Adjournment Motion in the House.
Annexation—It refers to an action by which a country captures and lays claim to a territory which does not belong to her. The foreign territory may belong to either some other country or it may be an unclaimed territory. This is an action capturing and annexing a foreign territory by a country.
Apartheid—Literally the term means ‘to keep apart’. The policy of apartheid was applied by white regime of South Africa against the black native people. The policy of apartheid consists of various forms of recriminations against black people, such as prohibiting their entry in white areas, schools, hospitals and other public places. practicing discrimination against them in the field of civil rights, employment and political process. The policy of apartheid has come to an end in South Africa in 1990 and now a black majority government rules the country.
Adult Franchise—In democratic countries, all adult citizens of certain age without any distinctions of caste. creed, colour, religion or sex are given right to vote. This is called adult franchise. The prescribed minimum age for citizens to avail voting right may differ from country to country. For example, it is 18 years in U.S.A. and Russia. The minimum age has been reduced in India from 21 years to 18 years by the 61st Constitutional Amendment. The assumption behind prescribing minimum age is that after this age a person gets discretionary capacity to exercise his/her vote in a prudent manner. In a way the adult frar1chise is also universal franchise as there is no distinction with respect to giving voting rights to all adult citizens.
Anarchy—In literal terms, this refers to a situation where there is no government worth the name or there is no rule of law. Consequently, lawlessness, disorder or anarchy prevails. In the society, might becomes right and the weak suffers.
Anarchism-—There are political thinkers who advocate the view that state, government, law or any organized authority stifles the individual liberty and thus are obstacles in the free development of individual and society. Thus, they support a view of society where there will be no state, no government or no organized authority at all. The emerging situation is similar to anarchy. This set of ideas is ref erred to as Anarchism. The Anarchism is of two types. First in which the future society is established through violent means and the second in which only peaceful means are accepted to establish such society. Mahatma Gandhi is known as ‘philosophical anarchist’.

Amnesty—Amnesty refers to a condition when the government grants pardon. in general way, to criminals and imprisoned persons and they are absolved of criminal accusations. In most of the cases, Amnesty is granted to political prisoners.
Ambassador—In order to protect her interests in foreign countries, a sovereign country sends her representatives in other countries. These representatives are called ambassadors. The ambassadors are generally permanently stationed in another country and keep in touch with the developments and happenings and inform the same to their representative countries. When member countries of commonwealth exchange their representatives with each other, such representatives are called High Commissioners.
Aggression—Aggression means violation of territorial integrity of a country by another country through military attack or other such means. In general parlance aggression means an act of attack by one country against another country. In International Law, the act of aggression is declared illegal, with few exceptions.
Abdication—If a King or a ruler voluntarily surrenders his throne or seat of power to his successors. it is called an act of abdication.
Armistice—Armistice refers to a situation of agreement between two or more nations who were at war. In armistice, two parties which are in the condition of hostility or war arrive at an agreement to end the hostility to engage in mutual exchange of ideas and viewpoint. The term ‘ceasefire’ differs from armistice in the sense that the former is temporary and includes only the end of military hostilities following war or aggression, whereas the latter is a peace agreement between two nations.
Autonomy—Autonomy is a status of a unit or a province in relation to the whole or central authority, where the unit enjoys the scope and authority to the extent that it can manage its internal affairs on its own without outside interference.



  1. Đức có thể xem là một trong những trung tâm kinh tế nằm giữa lòng châu Âu, (ên-mua-hàng-xách-tay-đức-về-việt-nam-uy-tín-giá-dong-ho-amazon) Đức là một thị trường lớn và quan trọng bậc nhất Châu Âu được xem là nhà vô địch về xuất khẩu và giá trị xuất khẩu lên đến 969 tỷ EUR, Đức thực sự là 1 “Đối Tác Toàn Cầu“ của nhiều quốc gia có nền kinh tế lớn mạnh như Anh, Pháp và Mỹ. Cánh tay thương mại của Đức ngày nay vươn dài đến các nước từ vùng Đông Âu cổ kính đến cả bên kia lục Địa Á Châu.
    Bắt đầu từ đấy, những mặt hàng như máy móc, đồ điện, hóa chất, quang học cho đến những đồ dùng trong nhà bếp, đồ dùng thể thao của Đức đã trở thành những sản phẩm có chất lượng vượt trội, dòng chữ “Made in Gemany” ( đã trở thành sự khẳng định chất lượng và lòng tin đối với người dùng trong nước và các nước trên thế giới, trong đó có Việt Nam
    Sữa Meiji ( không sản xuất tại Việt Nam mà chỉ có nhập khẩu vào Việt Nam mà thôi. Sữa Nhật nhập khẩu chính ngạch vào Việt Nam là hàng sản xuất ở Nhật nhưng mà theo tiêu chuẩn của Việt Nam. Còn sữa Nhật nội địa là sữa sản xuất theo tiêu chuẩn Nhật Bản và chỉ được tiêu dùng trong nước . Nên hiện dòng sữa này chỉ có hàng xách tay.
    Người Nhật nói riêng với “tập quán tiêu dùng” rất khó tính, ( kiêu kì và đòi hỏi tất cả chi tiết phải đạt được sự hoàn hảo ở mức độ tối đa nhất. Những sản phẩm tại Nhật luôn đòi hỏi sự tỉ mĩ về kỹ thuật, vượt trội về tính năng, tiện dụng và luôn an toàn trong quá trình sử dụng, họ sống làm việc và sản xuất với phương châm “Chất lượng sản phẩm là danh dự của quốc gia”. Điều này nói lên bất cứ doanh nghiệp thuộc ngành nghề nào, một khi cho ra đời sản phẩm “Made in Japan” thì danh tiếng công ty, uy tín thương hiệu, đẳng cấp sản phẩm, vị thế thương trường của doanh nghiệp đó đều phải hoàn mỹ.


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