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Memorable points

• In order to encourage young voters to take part in the political process, government has decided to create every year as ‘National Voters’ Day’ —January 25
• The US and Russia have finalized  this nuclear arms treaty that limits the number of atomic warheads the two former Cold War foes are allowed to possess —New START
• This legendary vocalist  enthralled generations of connoisseurs with his renditions of Hindustani classical music passed away recently after a prolonged illness
—Pandit Bhimsen Joshi
• Lance Armstrong. who recovered from cancer to win the Tour de France a record seven times, has formally announced his retirement from cycling. Armstrong belongs to —US
• This music composer-director received the World Economic Forum Crystal Award for this year for his contribution to the world of art and culture and for his outreach to improve the state of the world —AR Rahman
• The controversial Girnar Ropeway Project in Gujarat got in-principle approval subject to six specific conditions related to environment protection. The issue of protection of this
animal made it so much controversial — Vultures
• The Egyptian President, who resigned and handed power to the military on Feb 11
—Hosni Mubarak
• The Reserve Bank of India has said that coins with a denomination of and below will be pulled out of circulation by June 2011 after which they will cease to be legal tender —25paise
• The longest rail bridge in the country at 4.62km, connecting Idapalli to Vallarpadam, where the shipping ministry has constructed the International Container Transhipment
Terminal, has come up in —Kerala
• The Centre has named this former Tata Consultancy Services CEO as an advisor to the prime minister in the National Skill Development Council (NSDC) with the rank of a Cabinet minister —S Ramadorai
• The famous port in this Tamilnadu city has been renamed after late freedom flghter VO Chidambaranar —Tuticorin
• India has signed a bilateral free trade agreement with this country that would abolish duties on more than 90%of trade for10 years —Japan
• The Tibetan spiritual leader; who was in the eye of a storm recently when huge foreign currency haul was recovered from the Gyuto Monastery; the transit home of the
Karmapa, in Himachal Pradesh —Karmapa Ugyen TrinelyDorji
• This 1974 batch officer of the Indian Administrative Service of the Madhya Pradesh Cadre, has been appointed the first woman to hold the job of Finance Secretary
—Sushma Nath
• The UTI Asset Management Company chairman and managing directoz who has taken charge as Sebi’s chairman from the outgoing chief CB Bhave
—Upendra Kumar Sinha
• Indian Railways has inaugurated India’s first green station at this place on the Jammu - Udhampur rail route —Manwal
• The Booker Prize Foundation has created a special prize to honor the work of this much-loved novelist, who was shortlisted five times for the Booker Prize, but never actually won —Dame Beryl Bainbridge
• This Indian entrepreneur has officially taken over as owner of Spanish First Division side Racing Santander —Ahsan  Ali Syed
*This former bureaucrat and India’s first chief information commissioner has taken over as the new chairperson of the National Commission for Minorities
—Wajahat  Habibullah


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13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

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13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


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1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

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