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Geography Bits

Horse latitudes
Horse latitudes or Subtropical High are subtropic latitudes between 30 and 35 degrees both north and south. This region, under a ridge of high pressure called the subtropical high, is an area which receives little precipitation and has variable winds mixed with calm.
The term horse latitudes supposedly originates from when Spanish sailing vessels transported horses to the West Indies. Ships would often become becalmed in mid-ocean in this latitude, thus severely prolonging the voyage; the resulting water shortages would make it necessary for crews to throw their horses overboard.
The term might be derived from the "dead horse" ritual, a practice in which the seaman would parade a straw-stuffed effigy of a horse around the deck before throwing it overboard. Seamen were often paid partly in advance before a long voyage (see Beating a dead horse), and the "dead horse" was this period of time (usually a month or two). The ceremony was to celebrate having worked off the "dead horse" debt. As European west bound shipping would reach the subtropics at about the time the "dead horse" was worked off, the region became associated with the ceremony.[1]
The consistently warm, dry conditions of the horse latitudes also contribute to the existence of temperate deserts, such as the Sahara Desert in Africa, the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, and parts of the Middle East in the Northern Hemisphere, and the Atacama Desert, the Kalahari Desert, and the Australian Desert in the Southern Hemisphere.

India--- International Programmes
International Programmes

The Department of Ocean Development is the nodal agency for implementation of the provisions of United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (External website that opens in a new window)(UNCLOS), in India. UNCLOS is an important instrument, which establishes the framework and mechanisms for management of oceans. India ratified the Convention in June 1995. With coming into force of United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea, the institutions such as International Seabed Authority (ISBA) and Commission on the Limits of Continental Shelf (CLCS) came into existence. India has been re-elected in the Commission on the Limits of Continental Shelf for the second term for a period of 5 years in the year 2002. India is elected on all the institutions established under United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea. viz. International Seabed Authority(External website that opens in a new window), Commission on Limits of Continental Shelf and International Tribunal on Law of the Sea. India regularly participates in the meetings of ISBA, CLCS and also in the meeting of States Parties on Law of the Sea (SPLOS) and continues to play the key role in decision making in matters on Law of the Sea.


According to the provisions of United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the coastal State that intends to delineate the outer limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles is required to submit particulars of such limits along with the supporting scientific and technical data. The UNCLOS came into force in November 1994 and India ratified it in June 1995. If delineation is properly undertaken, India would be in a position to gain substantial area beyond the EEZ. It is required to be submitted by May 2009 and would be examined by the Commission on the Limits of Continental Shelf(External website that opens in a new window)(CLCS). The National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) at Goa, an autonomous body under the DOD, is coordinating this national endeavour with active co-operation and participation of all national institutions.


Established in 1960 under UNESCO, the Inter-governmental Oceanographic Commission(External website that opens in a new window) (IOC) is promoting global co-operation in marine scientific investigations, ocean services and capacity building in developing countries through the concerted efforts of all the 127 member states. India through its continued participation in IOGOOS, is contributing to the growth of oceanographic research and services.


After becoming a member of the Antarctic Treaty, India continues to participate in the meeting of the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programme(External website that opens in a new window) (COMNAP) and Standing Committee of Antarctic and Logistic Operations (SCALOP), Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) and Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (External website that opens in a new window)(CCAMLR).


India signed bilateral agreements with several countries including Russia, China, Portugal and Mauritius in last 5 years and has successfully implemented collaborative programmes in Myanmar, Mauritius, and Seychelles in the field of Ocean Science and Technology. India organised 5 days training programme for Sri Lanka and Myanmar on Delineation of Outer Limits of Continental Shelf at NCAOR, Goa.

Pacific Ring of Fire
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Pacific Ring of Fire
The Pacific Ring of Fire (or sometimes just the Ring of fire) is an area where large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of thePacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world's active and dormant volcanoes. It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum-Pacific seismic belt.

Alpide belt
The Alpide belt is a mountain range which extends along the southern margin of Eurasia. Stretching from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic, it includes the Alps, the Carpathians, the mountains of Asia Minor and Iran, the Hindu Kush, the Himalayas, and the mountains of Southeast Asia. It is the second most seismic region (5-6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world's largest earthquakes) in the world. The Pacific Ring of Fire is the most seismic region.


There are six such meteorological centres and five regional Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres utilized for naming of tropical cyclones and the distribution of tropical cycloneadvisories and warnings:
Southwest Pacific Ocean: RSMC Nadi-Tropical Cyclone Centre - Fiji Meteorological Service (Nadi, Fiji)
Southwest Indian Ocean: RSMC La Reunion-Tropical Cyclone Centre / Météo France (Réunion island, French Overseas Department)
Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea: RSMC - Tropical Cyclones New Delhi / India Meteorological Department (New Delhi, India)
Western North Pacific Ocean and South China Sea - RSMC Tokyo / Japan Meteorological Agency (Tokyo, Japan)
Central North Pacific Ocean - RSMC Honolulu Central Pacific Hurricane Center (Honolulu, Hawaii, USA)
Northeast Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and north Atlantic Ocean - RSMC Miami / National Hurricane Center[1]

A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain. Tropical cyclones feed on heat released when moist air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapor contained in the moist air. They are fueled by a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic windstorms such as nor'easters, European windstorms, and polar lows, leading to their classification as "warm core" storm systems. Tropical cyclones originate in the doldrums near the equator, about 10° away from it

Altai Mountains
The Altai Mountains (Russian: Алтай, Altay; Mongolian: Алтай; Chinese: 阿尔泰山脉,) are a mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their sources. The Altai Mountains are known as the Turkic peoples' birthplace. The northwest end of the range is at 52° N and between 84° and 90° E (where it merges with the Sayan Mountains to the east), and extends southeast from there to about 45°N 99°ECoordinates: 45°N 99°E, where it gradually becomes lower and merges into the high plateau of the Gobi Desert.

The epicenter or epicentre is the point on the Earth's surface that is directly above the hypocenter or focus, the point where an earthquake or underground explosion originates. The word derives from the Neolatin noun epicentrum[1] from the Greek adjective ἐπίκεντρος (epikentros) "central", from ἐπί (epi) "on, upon, at" and κέντρον(kentron) "centre".
In the case of earthquakes, the epicenter is directly above the point where the fault begins to rupture, and in most cases, it is the area of greatest damage. However, in larger events, the length of the fault rupture is much longer, and damage can be spread across the rupture zone. For example, in the magnitude 7.9, 2002 Denali earthquake in Alaska, the epicenter was at the western end of the rupture, but the greatest damage occurred about 330 km away at the eastern end of the rupture zone

Auroras, sometimes called the northern and southern (polar) lights or aurorae (singular: aurora), are natural light displays in the sky, usually observed at night, particularly in the polar regions. They typically occur in the ionosphere. They are also referred to as polar auroras. In northern latitudes, the effect is known as the aurora borealis, named after the Roman goddess of dawn, Aurora, and the Greek name for north wind, Boreas, by Pierre Gassendi in 1621.[1] The aurora borealis is also called the northern polar lights, as it is only visible in the sky from the Northern Hemisphere, the chance of visibility increasing with proximity to the North Magnetic Pole, which is currently in the arctic islands of northern Canada. Auroras seen near the magnetic pole may be high overhead, but from further away, they illuminate the northern horizon as a greenish glow or sometimes a faint red, as if the sun were rising from an unusual direction. The aurora borealis most often occurs near the equinoxes; from September to October and from March to April. The northern lights have had a number of names throughout history. The Cree people call this phenomenon the "Dance of the Spirits." In the middle age the auroras has been called by sign of God (see Wilfried Schröder, Das Phänomen des Polarlichts, Darmstadt 1984). Auroras can be spotted throughout the world. It is most visible closer to the poles due to the longer periods of darkness and the magnetic field.
Its southern counterpart, the aurora australis or the southern polar lights, has similar properties, but is only visible from high southern latitudes in Antarctica, South America, orAustralasia. Australis is the Latin word for "of the South."

The tropopause is the atmospheric boundary between the troposphere and the stratosphere. Going upward from the surface, it is the point where air ceases to cool with height, and becomes almost completely dry. More formally, it is the region of the atmosphere where the lapse rate changes from positive (in the troposphere) to negative (in the stratosphere). This occurs at the equilibrium level (EL), a value important in atmospheric thermodynamics. The exact definition used by the World Meteorological Organization is:
the lowest level at which the lapse rate decreases to 2 °C/km or less, provided that the average lapse rate between this level and all higher levels within 2 km does not exceed 2 °C/km.

Flash flood
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas - washes, rivers and streams. It is caused by heavy rain associated with a thunderstorm, hurricane, or tropical storm. Flash floods can also occur after the collapse of an ice dam, or a human structure, such as a dam, for example, the Johnstown Flood of 1889. Flash floods are distinguished from a regular flood by a timescale less than six hours.

Quicksand is a colloid hydrogel consisting of fine granular matter (such as sand or silt), clay, and salt water. In the name, as in that of quicksilver (mercury), "quick" does not mean "fast," but "living" (cf. the expression the quick and the dead).

Quicksand may be found inland (on riverbanks, near lakes, or in marshes), or near the coast.
One region notorious for its quicksands is Morecambe Bay, England. As the bay is very broad and shallow, a person trapped by the quicksand would be exposed to the danger of the returning tide, which can come in rapidly.

Shiva Crater
The Shiva crater is a sea floor structure located beneath the Indian Ocean, west of Mumbai, India. It was named by the paleontologist Sankar Chatterjee afterShiva, the Hindu god of destruction and renewal.

International Rice Research center
Established in 1960, we are the largest non-profit agricultural research center in Asia, with headquarters in the Philippines and offices in 14 nations. Supported by donors and partners around the globe, we are known as the home of the Green Revolution in Asia. We help feed almost half the world’s population. Our mission is to reduce poverty and hunger, improve the health of rice farmers and consumers, and ensure that rice production is environmentally sustainable.

Korba is located at 22.35°N 82.68°E.[1] It has an average elevation of 252 metres (826 feet).
Korba (population 1005,965) is a center of Korba District in the newly formed state of Chhattisgarh, India (Nov.1, 2000). It is situated at the confluence of the Hasdeo and Ahiran rivers. Located at 22*20' North latitude and 82*42' East longitude, with a height of 304.8 meter. above sea level, it is the major source of electricity inChhattisgarh.
Korba city enjoys varied climates and weathers. Korba and Champa are well known for “Kosa”, a special variety of silk used for producing one of the best quality of cloth in the world. Being light in weight and having shiny glaze, it is used to make Kurtas, Sarees, Shirts, Salwar-Suits and other garments for party as well as casual wears. Korba is connected to Champa, the nearest railway junction, on the Howrah-Nagpur-Mumbai, South Eastern Railway Zone. It is directly connected to Bilaspur the Divisional Head Quarter by rail and road through Katghora-Pali-Ratanpur. The nearest airport is at Raipur, which is about 250 KM from Korba.
Korba city is really the Power Capital of India. NTPC's Super Thermal Power Plant in Korba is working at 90% Plant Load Factor (PLF), and the plants of the Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) are also highly efficient. There are huge coal reserves in the vicinity, offering cheap pithead power generation opportunities and there is enough water from the State's largest reservoir of Hasdeo Bango. 84% of India's coal is in Chhattisgarh and two other States. There are adequate coal supplies- South Eastern Coalfields Ltd, Bilaspur is doubling its production from 35 million tonnes to 70 million tonnes per annum.
Korba is also the site of an aluminium facility operated by Bharat Aluminium Company (BALCO).

Kolkata Darshan(Universities)
Kolkata's schools are either run by the state government or by private (many of which are religious) organisations. Schools mainly use Bengali or English as the medium of instruction, though Hindi and Urdu are also used. The schools are affiliated with the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education, the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), or A-Level (British Curriculum). Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in a 2 year junior college (also known as a pre-university) or in schools with a higher secondary facility affiliated with West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education, ICSE or CBSE. Students usually choose from one of three streams — liberal arts, commerce, or science, though vocational streams are also available. Upon completing the required coursework, students may enrol in general or professional degree programmes.
Kolkata (help·info) (Bengali: কলকাতা ; IPA: [ˈkolkat̪a]), formerly  Calcutta (help·info), is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly.[1] When referred to as Calcutta, it usually includes the suburbs, and thus its population exceeds 15 million,[2] making it India's third-largest metropolitan area and urban agglomeration as well as the world's 8th largest agglomeration
Kolkata houses nine universities and numerous colleges affiliated to them or to other universities located outside. The University of Calcutta (founded in 1857) has more than 200 affiliated colleges.[95]
Bengal Engineering & Science University and Jadavpur University are notable engineering universities.
Calcutta Medical College is the first institution teaching modern medicine in Asia.[96]
Other notable institutions are Presidency College, St. Xavier's College, Bethune College (the first women's college in India) and Scottish Church College.
Some institutions of national importance are the
Asiatic Society,
Bose Institute, the
Indian Statistical Institute, the
Indian Institute of Management,the
Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, the
Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, the
Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, the
Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta, the
West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, the
Marine Engineering and Research Institute, the
Rabindra Bharati University, the
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, the
S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, the
Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, and the
National Institute of Fashion Technology,
Indian Institute of Chemical Biology.
The Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur and
National Institute of Technology, Durgapur are within a few hours distance from the city.


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