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Showing posts from February, 2011
Paleoclimatology is a branch of science that deals with the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth. It uses records from following sources to determine the past state of the climate system on Earth.
Tree Rings
Glacial Ice Cores
Ocean Sediments - The ratio of oxygen 16 to oxygen 18 preserved in the steady rain of dead organisms.
Radiocarbon dates of organic material
Pollen samples found in packrat middens and lake bed samples.
Variations in desert varnish coatings found on rocks in the arid southwest
Variations found in peatbog deposits
Sedimentary rock records.

Abyssal Plain
It is also known as deep sea plane. It usually the level of the ocean floor which lies between about 3500 m & 5500 m below the surface of the ocean. The trenches, mid ocean ridges sea mounts, often break the regularity of the abyssal plane. The plane is composed of ooze or red clay. The temperature doesn’t exceed 4 degree centigrade.

Paleoclimatology is a branch of science that deals with the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth. It uses records from following sources to determine the past state of the climate system on Earth.
Tree Rings
Glacial Ice Cores
Ocean Sediments - The ratio of oxygen 16 to oxygen 18 preserved in the steady rain of dead organisms.
Radiocarbon dates of organic material
Pollen samples found in packrat middens and lake bed samples.
Variations in desert varnish coatings found on rocks in the arid southwest
Variations found in peatbog deposits
Sedimentary rock records.

Geography Bits

Horse latitudes
Horse latitudes or Subtropical High are subtropic latitudes between 30 and 35 degrees both north and south. This region, under a ridge of high pressure called the subtropical high, is an area which receives little precipitation and has variable winds mixed with calm.
The term horse latitudes supposedly originates from when Spanish sailing vessels transported horses to the West Indies. Ships would often become becalmed in mid-ocean in this latitude, thus severely prolonging the voyage; the resulting water shortages would make it necessary for crews to throw their horses overboard.
The term might be derived from the "dead horse" ritual, a practice in which the seaman would parade a straw-stuffed effigy of a horse around the deck before throwing it overboard. Seamen were often paid partly in advance before a long voyage (see Beating a dead horse), and the "dead horse" was this period of time (usually a month or two). The ceremony was to celebrate havin…

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Diamond is element or compound : Element ,allotrope of carbon
Whichsubstances is a bad conductor of electricity but a good conductor of heat? Mica
Potassium Permanganate is used for purifying drinking water, because : it is an oxidising agent

Which  metals remain in liquid for under normal conditions? Mercury

Which  is the lightest metal? Lithium

General Knowledge Questions and Answers

General Knowledge Questions and Answers
No.General Knowledge QuestionAnswer1The first Prime minister of Bangladesh wasMujibur Rehman2The longest river in the world is theNile3The longest highway in the world is theTrans-Canada4The longest highway in the world has a length ofAbout 8000 km5The highest mountain in the world is theMount Everest6The country that accounts for nearly one third of the total teak production of the world isMyanmar7The biggest desert in the world is theSahara desert8The largest coffee growing country in the world isBrazil9The country also known as "country of copper" isZambia10The name given to the border which separates Pakistan and Afghanistan isDurand line11The river Volga flows out into theCaspian sea12The coldest place on the earth isVerkoyansk in Siberia13The country which ranks second in terms of land area isCanada14The largest Island in the Mediterranean sea isSicily15The river Jordan flows out into theDead sea

16The biggest delta in the world i…

some famous personality in Indian freedom struggle

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Mahatama Gandhi)
Mahatama Gandhi was born on the second of October 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat. He would become one of the nationalists instrumental in achieving India's freedom, and is often referred to as the father of the Indian nation. Mahatama Gandhi went to London, and studied law and was admitted into the British bar in 1891. He returned to India and tried to set up a law practice but met with little success. An Indian firm with interests in South Africa hired him and posted him to Durban, South Africa. Mahatama Gandhi was disappointed when he arrived in South Africa, for he found that he was treated as a member of an inferior race. The appalling denial of basic rights to the native African and immigrant Indian citizens by the ruling Europeans troubled Mahatama Gandhi and he launched a struggle against this oppression. Mahatama Gandhi would spend 20 years in South Africa in which time he would learn valuable lessons on the effective…

Medieval History of India ;Vijayanagar Empire

When Muhammad Tughlaq was losing his power in Deccan, the two Hindu princes, Harihar and Bukka founded an independent kingdom in the region between the river Krishna and Tungabhadra in 1336. They soon established their sway over the entire territory between the rivers Krishna in the north and Cauveri in the south. The rising powers of the Vijayanagar empire brought it into clash with many powers and they frequently fought wars with the Bahmani kingdom.
The most famous king of the Vijaynagara Empire was Krishnadeva Raya. The Vijayanagar kingdom reached the pinnacle of its glory during his reign. He was successful in all the wars he waged. He defeated the king of Orissa and annexed Vijaywada and Rajmahendri.
Krishnadeva Raya encouraged trade with the western countries. He had a cordial relationship with the Portuguese who had at that time established trade centres on the west coast of India. He was not only a great warrior, but was also a playwright and a great patron of learning. Tele…

Medieval History of India :Bhakti Movement

An important landmark in the cultural history of medieval India was the silent revolution in society brought about by a galaxy of socio-religious reformers, a revolution known as the Bhakti Movement. This movement was responsible for many rites and rituals associated with the worship of God by Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs of Indian subcontinent. For example, Kirtan at a Hindu Temple, Qawaali at a Dargah (by Muslims), and singing of Gurbani at a Gurdwara are all derived from the Bhakti movement of medieval India (800-1700). The leader of this Hindu revivalist movement was Shankaracharya, a great thinker and a distinguished philosopher. And this movement was propounded by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Namadeva, Tukaram, Jayadeva. The movement's major achievement was its abolition of idol worship.
The leader of the bhakti movement focusing on the Lord as Rama was Ramananda. Very little is known about him, but he is believed to have lived in the first half of the 15th century. He taught that Lo…

Medieval History of India :The Mughal Empire

In India, the Mughal Empire was one of the greatest empires ever. The Mughal Empire ruled hundreds of millions of people. India became united under one rule, and had very prosperous cultural and political years during the Mughal rule. There were many Muslim and Hindu kingdoms split all throughout India until the founders of the Mughal Empire came. There were some men such as Babar, grandson to the Great Asian conqueror Tamerlane and the conqueror Genghis Khan from the northern region of Ganges, river valley, who decided to take over Khyber, and eventually, all of India.
Babar (1526-1530): the great grandson of Tamerlane and Genghis Khan, was the first Mughal emperor in India. He confronted and defeated Lodhi in 1526 at the first battle of Panipat, and so came to establish the Mughal Empire in India. Babar ruled until 1530, and was succeeded by his son Humayun.
Humayun (1530-1540 and 1555-1556): the eldest son of Babar, succeeded his father and became the second emperor of the Mughal Em…

Medieval History of India : Rise of the Sikh Power

Sikhism was founded by Guru Nanak Dev at the beginning of the sixteenth century. Guru Nanak was born on April 15, 1469 in the Western Punjab village of Talwandi. Even as a child, he was given to deep thinking with no interest in worldly life. At the age of thirty, he got enlightenment. Thereafter, he travelled almost the whole of the country and went over to Mecca and Baghdad, preaching his message. On his death he was followed by nine other Gurus in succession.Guru Angad Dev Ji (1504-1552) was Guru for thirteen years (1539-1552). He created a new script gurmukhi and gave the Sikhs a written language. After his death Guru Amar Das Ji (1479-1574) followed in succession. He showed great devotion and made the langar an integral part of Sikhism. Guru Ram Das Ji took over as the fourth Guru, he composed hymns, which were later incorporated in the sacred writings. Guru Arjan Dev Ji became the fifth Guru of Sikhism. He built the world famous Harmandar Sahib, popularly known as the Golden Tem…

Indian Freedom Struggle (1857-1947)

In ancient times, people from all over the world were keen to come to India. The Aryans came from Central Europe and settled down in India.The Persians followed by the Iranians and Parsis immigrated to India. Then came the Moghuls and they too settled down permanently in India. Chengis Khan, the Mongolian, invaded and looted India many times. Alexander the Great too, came to conquer India but went back after a battle with Porus. He-en Tsang from China came in pursuit of knowledge and to visit the ancient Indian universities of Nalanda and Takshila. Columbus wanted to come to India, but instead landed on the shores of America. Vasco da Gama from Portugal came to trade his country's goods in return for Indian species. The French came and established their colonies in India.
Lastly, the Britishers came and ruled over India for nearly 200 years. After the battle of Plassey in 1757, the British achieved political power in India. And their paramountcy was established during the tenure o…

Indian Freedom Struggle (1857-1947) : End of the East India Company

Consequent to the failure of the Revolt of 1857 rebellion, one also saw the end of the East India Company's rule in India and many important changes took place in the British Government's policy towards India which sought to strengthen the British rule through winning over the Indian princes, the chiefs and the landlords. Queen Victoria's Proclamation of November 1, 1858 declared that thereafter India would be governed by and in the name of the British Monarch through a Secretary of State.
The Governor General was given title of Viceroy, which meant the representative of the Monarch. Queen Victoria assumed the title of the Empress of India and thus gave the British Government unlimited powers to intervene in the internal affair of the Indian states. In brief, the British paramountcy over India, including the Indian States, was firmly established. The British gave their support to the loyal princes, zamindar and local chiefs but neglected the educated people and the common …