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Showing posts from March 30, 2010

Indian Polity #12


Running the administration of a vast and diverse country requires efficient management of natural, economic and human resources. This is the primary responsibility of the civil servicesCivil Services in India originated in the eighteenth century under the rule of the East India CompanyCivil services in India comprise three types of services All India ServicesCentral Civil Services – Group ACentral Civil Services – Group BState Civil ServicesAccording to the Constitution, more Civil Services can be set up by the Rajya Sabha with a 2/3rd majority vote. This applies to All India and Central Services, while the State Services can be constituted by similar act of state legislatures. The Indian Forest Service and the Indian Foreign Service were set up in this fashionCivil Services under British rule

The civil services were first constituted under the East India Company as the Honourable East India Company Civil Servants (HEICS)
At this stage there were two groups…

Indian Polity #11


Since Parliament needs to perform substantial functions in limited time, it cannot go into the details of every legislative and other matter that comes before itFor this reason, Parliamentary Committees are constituted to study in detail the legislative and other matters that come before Parliament
Committees can be appointed in both Houses of Parliament, and their roles and functions are more or less similarFunctions of the Committees

To consider the Demand for Grants of various Departments/Ministries and make reports to the HousesTo examine Bills that are referred to the Committee by the Lok Sabha or the Rajya SabhaTo study annual reports of various Ministries and DepartmentsTo consider policy documents presented to the Houses if/when referred to the Committee by the Lok Sabha or Rajya SabhaTYPES OF COMMITTEES
Ad hoc Committees

They are appointed for a specific purpose and cease to exist when the task is finished
They can either belong to one part…

Indian Polity #10


The Attorney General is the Union Government’s chief legal advisor and is its primary lawyer in the Supreme Court
The Attorney General is the highest law officer in the country The first Attorney General of independent India was M C Setalvad 1950-1963 The current Attorney General is G E Vahanvati (2009 – present)

Keywords: IAS, IAS Exam, IAS Study Material, UPSC, UPSC Exam, UPSC Question Papers, Civil Service, Civil Service Exam, Civil Service Study Material, General Studies, General Studies Question Paper, Free, Study Material, Question Paper, 2009, 2010, India

Terms of service

The Attorney General is appointed by the President under Article 76 of the Constitution To be appointed Attorney General, a candidate must be qualified to be appointed as a Judge of the Supreme Court

Keywords: IAS, IAS Exam, IAS Study Material, UPSC, UPSC Exam, UPSC Question Papers, Civil Service, Civil Service Exam, Civil Service Study Material, General Studies, General Studies Que…

Indian Polity #9


India is the largest democracy in the world (in terms of electorate)The 2009 General Elections had an electorate of 714 million. This is larger than the electorates of the EU and the US combinedThe first General Elections were held in 1951The control and conduct of all elections to the Parliament, to the state legislatures and to the offices of the President and Vice-President fall under the purview of the Election Commission of India
Panchayat elections are conducted by respective State Election Commissions
Keywords: IAS, IAS Exam, IAS Study Material, UPSC, UPSC Question Papers, India, Civil Service, General Studies, Free

Constitutional provisions for elections

Article 324 stipulates that the superintendence, direction and control of elections shall be vested in the Election Commission
Article 325 provides a single electoral roll for every constituency. Also stipulates that no person shall be eligible or ineligible for inclusion in electoral rolls on the basis of…

Indian Polity #8



Local government in India falls mainly under two categories: rural self government and urban self governmentThere are about 3 million elected representatives in Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), about one third of them womenThere are more than 640,000 village panchayats, about 6000 intermediate bodies and 500 district level bodies. Panchayats cover about 99.6% of India’s rural population
The powers and functions of PRIs vary from state to stateKeywords: India, ias, upsc, civil service, free, study material, exam, general studies, Indian polity

Evolution of local government

The earliest references to self government are found in the Rig Veda, which mentions ’sabhas’ at the village levelOver time, these bodies evolved into Panchayats (council of five persons)Under British rule, local governance was authorised by the Mayo Resolution of 1870 (under Lord Mayo)However, it was the Ripon Resolution of 1882 (under Lord Ripon) that prioritised local government an…

Indian Polity #7


Governors and Lieutenant-Governors of states and Union Territories have powers at the state level similar to that of the President at the Union levelGovernors preside over states while Lieutenant-Governors preside over Union Territories and NCT DelhiThe office of the Lieutenant-Governor exists only in the Union Territories of Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Pondicherry and NCT Delhi. Other Union Territories have an Administrator, who is usually an IAS officer.
Keywords: India, ias, upsc, exam, civil service, study material, general studies, Indian polity, free

Conditions of service

Governors and Lieutenant-Governors are appointed by the President for a period of 5 yearsThe Governor or Lieutenant-Governor can be dismissed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime MinisterUnlike the President, Governors and Lieutenant-Governors can not be impeached
Keywords: India, ias, upsc, exam, civil service, study material, general studies, Ind…

Indian Polity #6


The Supreme Court of India is decreed by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution
It was established on 28 Jan 1950According to the Constitution, the role of the Supreme Court is that of a federal court, guardian of the Constitution and the highest court of appealThe Supreme Court has original, appellate and advisory jurisdictionAbout the Supreme Court building

The first home of the Supreme Court was the Chamber of Princes of the Parliament building, which had been the seat of the Federal Court of IndiaThe Court moved to the present premises in 1958The present premises was designed by Ganesh Bhikaji DeolalikarCOMPOSITION OF THE SUPREME COURT

Judges of the Supreme Court

The Supreme Court consists of 31 judges – one Chief Justice and 30 other JusticesThe Constitution originally provided for 7 judges in the Court. However, due to increased workloads, this number has been gradually increased, reaching 31 in 2008Judges in the Supreme Court sit together in Benches to…