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Showing posts from March 25, 2010

Polity notes-5

Decentralization

·it has Administrative -political-legal nature.
·for example State Govt. transferring the power to Panchayats.
·Legal (because Constitution provides for it)
·Political (empowerment of people @ grassroots)
·Administrative (reduce work burden of field officers.)
Deconcentration

·has Administrative angle only.
·Maintaining Law and order is state Govt.'s responsibility but CM or Chief Secretary or Divisional Commissioner can't himself petrol around everywhere.
·So this work is transferred to District collector. (and he maintains it using the police force given to him.)
·so, When State Govt. gives powers to district collector for better Administrative reasons - this is Deconcentration.


Devolution

·in the fedaral structure, States are given their own powers over which they've complete authority, for example maintaining Law and order.
·Centre can't send CBI everywhere as and when & where it pleases, first it needs the permission of State Govt. to invest…

Polity notes-4

How is the President of India elected? How is the President of India elected?

As our present President’s term is set to end, it is time we learn a bit about the Presidential election. The President is elected by an electoral college, consisting of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament and state legislative assemblies. For the Presidential elections, there are thus a total of 4,896 potential electors, consisting of 543 Lok Sabha members, 233 Rajya Sabha members and 4,120 MLAs.

The voting strength of each elector is different and is determined on the basis of proportional representation. The population of each state is divided by 1,000 and then by the number of elected MLAs in the assembly to yield the value of each MLA’s votes from that state. In all, the MLAs of all the assemblies put together have 5,49,474 votes. The system also tries to ensure a balance between the value of votes of MPs and state legislators. This is done by dividing the votes of all the MLAs by the nu…

Polity notes-3

directive principles of state They are not justifiable as per Art 37 but enforceable in people’s court. The object of these principles incorporated based on Irish Constitution is to embody the concept of a welfare State. They are positive in nature, as they are positive instructions to state to strive hard to implement some programmes for the welfare of people. On the other hand Fundamental Rights are negative in nature and they direct the state to refrain from doing certain acts violating the basic codified rights of people. Directive principles were held to be supplement to fundamental rights in achieving a Welfare State. Parliament can amend fundamental rights for implementing the directives so long as the amendment does not touch the basic features. They are supplement to each other. In fact directive principles and fundamental rights are to be harmoniously construed.K.T. Shah defined it as cheque payable at the convenience of banker.

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES

Art 37; Not justiciable-