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Showing posts from March 17, 2010

descriptive Question-Answer 7

Labour intensive industrialisationIn order to ensure that benefits of economic development reach one and all in India, labour-intensive industrialisation is the urgent need of the hour. Express your views on the subject.

Despite the fact that Indian economy has been surging ahead and the GDP growth showing a steady rise over the years, the spectre of unemployment and imbalanced development among various regions still keeps staring us in the face. Unless the fruits of economic development reach one and all, there is every likelihood of the tremors of unrest erupting every now and then.

Undoubtedly, we need credible policy solutions to reduce imbalances. Industrial  development must spread to new regions so that the feeling of neglect and alienation among people living in the least developed areas of India is adequately addressed and pacified.

The hold of ‘crony capitalism’ must yield to capitalism with social concerns. In the present economic-cum-market dispensation, indu…

descriptive Question-Answer 5

Reforming Criminal Judicial SystemSuggest three effective measures to reform criminal judicial system in India. Based on experience, knowledge and ground realities, state how the steps suggested by you would prove effective indeed.

In India ‘justice delayed is justice denied’ does not provoke as much rage and outrage among people as does the acquittal of those in high-profile criminal cases. In recent years, the high and influential accused have so managed and manipulated to get themselves acquitted that the people at large have begun to lose faith in the entire criminal judicial system. The words of warning from various quarters that the judicial system in India is almost on the verge of collapse, should send the right message to the powers-that-be to take immediate and corrective steps to stem the rot that has set in the system, before it is too late to mend the matters.

Rightly, the letter and spirit of the entire legal system stresses on the fact that no innocent pe…

descriptive Question-Answer 6

Politics of DevelopmentThe best way to inspire and involve the Indian youth in making India an upcoming economic power is for all political parties to engage themselves in politics of development. In your well-considered opinion what measures should be adopted to achieve the goal.

Needless to reiterate and reaffirm that India needs politics of development rather than the politics of polemics and populism. More than ever before, both people and political parties should see to it that they work for harmony and not for acrimony among people professing different faiths and practising varied ways of conduct and character in their day to day lives. No other concern and consideration should weigh on the perceptions and priorities of politicians, programmers and planners, except those that enhance developmental activities in all walks of life and ultimately help improve quality of life of those subsisting at the lowest levels of our socio-economic ladder. It is time now that pol…

UPSC Exams Geography Notes - 1

Acid precipitation (Acid Rainfall): is now regarded as a serious problem in some European and Asian countries, the main cause and source of which is emissions of sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides from thermal power plants and burn­ing of fossil fuels. These oxides dissolve in atmospheric water vapour and fall back on earth as acid rainfall. Acid rainfall can cause destruction of crops and trees; destruction of fish; and damage to buildings.
Agronomy: Soil manage­ment and production of field crops is known as Agronomy.
Aleurone layer: is that part of the grain in cereals where much of the protein lies.
Alluvial soil: is the richest and most fertile soil of India spread over large areas in north­ern plains of India.
Arakan Yoma: is the exten­sion of the Himalayas located in Myanmar.
Asthamudi Lake: is locat­ed in Kerala State.
Bailadila: in Bastar district of Madhya Pradesh, is known for its wealth of Manganese.
Barhara (Tribes): The Barhara tribes mentioned in the Mahab…

Indian Constitution

Idea for a Constituent Assembly for drafting a con­stitution for India was first provided by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1895.

The elections for the  first Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. Ini­tially it had 389 members, but later the reformed Assembly had 324 members.

The State of Hydrabad did not participate in elections to the Constituent Assembly.

The first meeting of Constituent Assembly was held on December 9, 1946— its president was Dr Sacchi­danand Sinha.

The second meeting was held on December 11, 1946. Its president was Dr Rajendra Prasad.

The Objectives Reso­lution was passed under chairmanship of J.L. Nehru.

The Draft of Indian Constitution was presented in October 1947. President of the Drafting Committee was Bhim Rao Ambedkar.

The Flag Committee worked under J.B. Kripalani.

The total time con­sumed to prepare the draft was 2 years, 11 months, 18 days. Total 11 meetings were held for this.

The Indian Constitu­tion was e…

History - Trade & Commerce in ancient India

Metallurgy is as old as pre-historic times. Mining of metals was known even in pre-Vedic period and during the Harappa period various metals like cop-per, lead, silver were in use.

During Vedic period, metal (ayas) was chiefly of two kinds—krishna ayas (black metal or iron) used during later Vedic period and loh ayas (copper).

The Jatakas refer to eighteen important handicrafts and industries.

The Vaishyas developed institu-tions like Sreni, Nigama and Puga to regu-late trade and avoid intrusion by other varnas and develop monopoly.

Proper rules of conduct of trade were laid by the head of trade guilds, known as Sarthavaha or Srenipramukha. The rules were called Samay and Srenidharma.

Taxila, Pushkalavati, Kapisa and Vidisha prospered as trade centres, under the Indo-Greek rulers.

Kautilya asked the king to develop measures to stop obstruction of the trade routes by his favourite men (vallabhas). Frontier guards (Antapalas) were also appointed.

The close contacts bet…

History - Imperial Guptas

Ashoka’s death left a vacu­um in India for the next 600 years, during which, several foreign tribes overran India. With the ascent of the Gupta power, the northern States were merged into a single empire. This national revival yielded an excellent administration and trade, all-round development with prevailing order and peace. The tax-burden was low compared to the Mauryan rule and the State provided for safe roads for trade. The period saw the revival of religion, sanskrit literature, art and architecture too.

After the Mauryas, the two main powers were the Satavahanas in the Dec­can and the Kushanas in the north. They carried on brisk trade with the Roman empire. These powers were replaced in the middle of the 3rd century A.D. by the Gup­tas. The Guptas were Vaishyas by caste and fol­lowed Vaishnavism.

The main centres of Gupta activity were Magad­ha (Pataliputra), Prayag (Allahabad), Ujjain (M.P., considered as their second capital), Saket…