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Showing posts from March 10, 2010

Changes in the Recruitment Process of Civil Services Exam

Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions

Changes in the Recruitment Process of Civil Services Exam 15:12 IST LOK SABHA

The examination system of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is updated from time to time to keep it in harmony with the changing environment. In regard to the Civil Services Examination (CSE) the Prime Minister has approved the proposal for introduction of Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT) in place of the existing Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination. The CSAT is expected to come into effect from Civil Services Examination, 2011.

This information was given by the Minister of State in the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Shri Prithviraj Chavan in written reply to a question in Lok Sabha today.



Research Methods in Psychology- part 4

1. What are some features of good scientific research?
Good scientific research must have precise hypotheses, replicability, falsifiable theories and hypotheses, and parsimonious explanations.

2. What is sampling bias?
Sampling bias is a type of error that occurs when a sample isn’t representative of the population from which it is drawn.

.3. Why might it be problematic to rely only on self-report data when doing research?
Self-report data can be misleading. People sometimes intentionally lie, give answers based on wishful thinking, don’t understand the questions asked, or don’t remember information..

4. Why is it problematic to draw cause-and-effect conclusions based on correlative data?
We cannot draw cause-and-effect conclusions about correlative data because one factor can be related to another factor without causing it.

5. What does it mean if a researcher claims that a particular result is statistically significant?

If a result is statistically significant, it is probably not du…

Research Methods in Psychology- part 3

Ethical Considerations In the past, researchers performed all kinds of questionable experiments in the name of science. For example, in one famous experiment, psychologist Stanley Milgram led his subjects to believe that they were giving painful electric shocks to other people. Many people consider this experiment unethical because it caused the subjects emotional discomfort. Today, researchers must abide by basic ethical norms when conducting research. Most important, they must consider whether they might harm their human or animal subjects while doing research.
Ethics refers to a system of moral values or the way people distinguish right from wrong. The American Psychological Association (APA) requires all its members to adhere to its code of ethics, which applies to the treatment of both humans and animals.
Research with Human Subjects Researchers must get informed consent from their subjects before beginning research. Informed consent means that subjects must know enough abo…

Research Methods in Psychology- part 2

Research Methods Psychologists use many different methods for conducting research. Each method has advantages and disadvantages that make it suitable for certain situations and unsuitable for others.
Descriptive or Correlational Research Methods Case studies, surveys, naturalistic observation, and laboratory observation are examples of descriptive or correlational research methods. Using these methods, researchers can describe different events, experiences, or behaviors and look for links between them. However, these methods do not enable researchers to determine causes of behavior.
Remember: correlation is not the same as causation. Two factors may be related without one causing the other to occur. Often, a third factor explains the correlation.
Example: A psychologist uses the survey method to study the relationship between balding and length of marriage. He finds that length of marriage correlates with baldness. However, he can’t infer from this that being bald causes people to st…

Research Methods in Psychology- part 1

IntroductionPsychologists do more than just wonder about human behavior: they conduct research to understand exactly why people think, feel, and behave the way they do. Like other scientists, psychologists use the scientific method, a standardized way to conduct research. A scientific approach is used in order to avoid bias or distortion of information. After collecting data, psychologists organize and analyze their observations, make inferences about the reliability and significance of their data, and develop testable hypotheses and theories.
Psychological research has an enormous impact on all facets of our lives, from how parents choose to discipline their children to how companies package and advertise their products to how governments choose to punish or rehabilitate criminals. Understanding how psychologists do research is vital to understanding psychology itself.

Psychological Research Psychologists study a wide range of topics, such as language development in children and the e…

Psychology Glossary

AAbsolute refractory period -  The period during which a neuron lies dormant after an action potential has been completed. Absolute threshold -  The minimum amount of stimulation needed for a person to detect the stimulus 50 percent of the time. Accommodation -  The process by which the shape of an eye’s lens adjusts to focus light from objects nearby or far away. Also: the modification of a schema as new information is incorporated. Acetylcholine -  A neurotransmitter involved in muscle movement, attention, arousal, memory, and emotion. Achievement motive -  An impulse to master challenges and reach a high standard of excellence. Achievement tests -  An assessment that measures skills and knowledge that people have already learned. Acronym -  A word made out of the first letters of several words. Acrostic -  A sentence or phrase in which each word begins with a letter that acts as a memory cue. Action potential -  …