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Showing posts from February 12, 2010
Gliding plane... acrystal direction along which the atoms can slip a defined distance without destroying the coherence of the crystal.

Grain...(Troy system)..480 grains to the oz.

Habit...Characteristic crystal form.
Hacklt...A fracture characteristic of metals in rock, like gold and copper. (hackly)

Hardness...The resistance by a substance to actions which tend to modify its surface by scratching, abrasion, penetration.

Hemimorphic...Half formed crystals in which the faces that grow on one end are different in angle and position from the faces to be found on the other end.

Hydrothermal...Hot water or solution sometimes superheated which the color is due to an essential constituent.

Igneous rock.. Rock formed by the solidification of magma.

Inclusions...Substances within a mineral, example, other minerals, gas bubbles, liquids, or other foreign objects.

Imitation Stones...Substances used to look like a genuine. ie: glass, plastic, etc.

Inclusions...Solid, …
Glossary of selected Important Terms 
Conglomerate ( as in geology) .. Conglomerates, as well as sedimentary breccias, are coarse-grained SEDIMENTARY ROCKS formed by the consolidation and hardening of, respectively, rounded and angular gravel deposited in oceans. More than 30 percent of the large particles of these rocks exceed 2 mm (0.08 in) in diameter. The particles may be pebbles, cobbles, or boulders, or mixtures of these sizes. Both conglomerates and sedimentary breccias may be named and classified by the proportion of gravel - sized particles; the type of matrix,and the types of gravel-sized particles. The proportion of gravel is a function of the highest current speed at the time of deposition and the availability of particles of such coarse size. A sample that is more than 80 percent pebbles, cobbles, or boulders is called a conglomerate proper, whereas one that is 30 to 80 percent is an arenaceous (sandy) conglomerate or an argillaceous (shaley) conglomerate. The matrix betwe…
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Robert Sternberg (1985) proposed the triarchic theory of intelligence. Sternberg views intelligence as “the ability to adapt, to shape and select environment to accomplish one’s goals and those of one’s society and culture”. According to this theory, there are three basic types of intelligence: Componential, Experiential, and Contextual. The elements of the triarchic theory of intelligence are shown in Figure below.

Componential Intelligence : Componential or analytical intelligence is the analysis of information to solve problems. Persons high on this ability think analytically and critically and succeed in schools. This intelligence has three components, each serving a different function. First is the knowledge acquisition component, which is responsible for learning and acquisition of the ways of doing things. The second is the meta or a higher order component, which involves planning concerning what to do and how to do. The third is the performan…
Major Areas of Research in Botany Biotechnology
Agronomists use biotechnology to extend and expedite the development of desired characteristics listed in the Plant Breeding section. Biotechnology is is often a lab activity requiring field testing of the new crop varieties that are developed.

In addition to increasing crop yields, reducing crop vulnerability to environmental stresses, improving health and taste of foods, and reducing the need for field applied chemicals, agronomic biotechnology is increasingly being applied for novel uses other than food. For example, oilseed is at present used mainly for margarine and other food oils, but it can be modified to produce fatty acids for detergents, substitute fuels and petrochemicals.

Soil Science
Agronomists study sustainable ways to make soils more productive. They classify soils and reproduce them to determine whether they contain substances vital to plant growth. Such nutritional substances include compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, an…
Paleobotany, also spelled as palaeobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and "botany", study of plants), is the branch of paleontology or paleobiology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use for the biological reconstruction of past environments, and the evolution of both the plant kingdom and life in general. A synonym is paleophytology. Paleobotany includes the study of terrestrial plant fossils, as well as the study of prehistoric marine photoautotrophs, such as photosynthetic algae, seaweeds or kelp. A closely-related field is palynology, which is the study of fossilized and extant spores and pollen.

Paleobotany is important in the reconstruction of ancient ecological systems and climate, known as paleoecology and paleoclimatology respectively; and is fundamental to the study of green plant development and evolution. Paleobotany has also become important to the field of archaeology, primarily f…
Horticulture Horticulture is the art and science of the cultivation of plants.

Horticulturists work and conduct research in the fields of plant propagation and cultivation, crop production, plant breeding and genetic engineering, plant biochemistry, and plant physiology. The work particularly involves fruits, berries, nuts, vegetables, flowers, trees, shrubs, and turf. Horticulturalists work to improve crop yield, quality, nutritional value, and resistance to insects, diseases, and environmental stresses.

The study of horticulture
Horticulture involves six areas of study, which can be grouped into two broad sections - ornamentals and edibles:

• Arboriculture the study and selection, planting, care, and removal of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants.
• Floriculture (includes production and marketing of floral crops),
• Landscape horticulture (includes production, marketing and maintenance of landscape plants).
• Olericulture (includes production and marketin…
Forest Ecosystem
Forestry is the art, science, and practice of studying and managing forests and plantations, and related natural resources. Silviculture, a related science, involves the growing and tending of trees and forests. Modern forestry generally concerns itself with: assisting forests to provide timber as raw material for wood products; wildlife habitat; natural water quality regulation; recreation; landscape and community protection; employment; aesthetically appealing landscapes; biodiversity management; watershed management; and a 'sink' for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester.

Forest ecosystems have come to be seen as one of the most important components of the biosphere, and forestry has emerged as a vital field of science, applied art, and technology.

Foresters may be employed by industry, government agencies, conservation groups, urban parks boards, citizens' associations, or private landowners. Industrial…
Historical Evolution of Botany

Early examples of plant taxonomy occur in the Rigveda, that divides plants into Vrska (tree), Osadhi (herbs useful to humans) and Virudha (creepers). which are further subdivided. The Atharvaveda divides plants into eight classes, Visakha (spreading branches), Manjari (leaves with long clusters), Sthambini (bushy plants), Prastanavati (which expands); Ekasrnga (those with monopodial growth), Pratanavati (creeping plants), Amsumati (with many stalks), and Kandini (plants with knotty joints). The Taittiriya Samhita and classifies the plant kingdom into vrksa, vana and druma (trees), visakha (shrubs with spreading branches), sasa (herbs), amsumali (a spreading or deliquescent plant), vratati (climber), stambini (bushy plant), pratanavati (creeper), and alasala (those spreading on the ground).

Manusmriti proposed a classification of plants in eight major categories. Charaka SamhitĂ„ and Sushruta Samhita and the Vaisesikas also present an elaborate tax…
Concepts in Botany

Botany is the scientific study of plant life. As a branch of biology, it is also called plant science(s), phytology, or plant biology. Botany covers a wide range of scientific disciplines that study plants, algae, and fungi including: structure, growth, reproduction, metabolism, development, diseases, and chemical properties and evolutionary relationships between the different groups.

The study of plants and botany began with tribal lore, used to identify edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making botany one of the oldest sciences. From this ancient interest in plants, the scope of botany has increased to include the study of over 550,000 kinds or species of living organisms.

Scope and importance of botany
As with other life forms in biology, plant life can be studied from different perspectives, from the molecular, genetic and biochemical level through organelles, cells, tissues, organs, individuals, plant populations, and communities of plants. At e…
Genetics Part-III
What are exons and introns?

• exons are coding regions, and

• introns are non-coding regions of the mRNA transcript

• exons and introns are found in most, but not all, eukaryote genes

• introns have to be spliced out before the mRNA is translated

• splicing is by snRNA's acting as enzymes, or ribozymes, an example of the catalytic function of RNA
DNA replication, transcription and translation:

• Synthesis of a linear polymer of amino acids from a linear polymer of nucleotides

Where does it occur?

On the ribosome, a rRNA-protein complex that provides:
• a scaffold for mRNA

• sites for the docking of tRNA charged with a specific amino acid

• an enzyme for peptide bond synthesis between amino acids

• an enzyme for translocation of the mRNA through the ribosome

What is the function of tRNA?

• Carrier of a specific amino acid during translation

What is the structure of tRNA?
• secondary structure has some base-pairing --> cloverleaf

• informat…
Genetics Part-II
What is the evidence for semi-conservative replication?
Classical experiments of Meselson and Stahl. Label DNA with *heavy isotope* N15 and allow replication in light N14: distinguish heavy, light and hybrid DNA by centrifugation.

Results: after 1 generation, each genome contains a hybrid N15-N14 DNA; after 2 generations, there are 2 hybrid and 2 light (N14-N14) genomes.

• Each strand of DNA serves as a template for the synthesis of its complement.

• The strands separate and each is used as a template for the synthesis of a daughter strand.

• The two new double helices each contain half the parental DNA.

• This process produces a replication fork

Is replication uni-directional or bi-directional?

• Bi-directional

• Two replication forks proceeding from the origin.

DNA replication, transcription and translation.
What is the major replication enzyme?

DNA polymerase III, a DNA-directed DNA polymerase

• Synthesis is 5'-->3'

• Substrates are deoxynucleos…
Genetics: Introduction concepts
Inheritance Patterns

Mendel was the first scientist to develop a method for predicting the outcome of inheritance patterns. He performed his work with pea plants, studying seven traits: plant height, pod shape, pod color, seed shape, seed color, flower color, and flower location. Pea plants pollinate themselves. Therefore, over many generations, pea plants develop individuals that are homozygous for particular characteristics. These populations are known as pure lines.

In his work, Mendel took pure-line pea plants and cross-pollinated them with other pure-line pea plants. He called these plants the parent generation. When Mendel crossed pure-line tall plants with pure-line short plants, he discovered that all the plants resulting from this cross were tall. He called this generation the F1 generation (first filial generation). Next, Mendel crossed the offspring of the F1 generation tall plants among themselves to produce a new generation called the F2 ge…

Glossary of Selected Important Terms1

Glossary of Selected Important Terms

Absorption Spectrum....Colors of light least absorbed combining to produce the color of the stone. The stone, when viewed by spectroscope, will show as dark bands in characteristic positions the colors most strongly absorbed.

Acicular...Needlelike; refers to the growth of a mineral in long and slender crystals.

Adamantine... Very high luster.

Aggregate...Intergrowth of several crystals, these may be globular, fibrous, reniform, or radiating fibrous.

Adularescence...The sheen of color seen in moonstone and other feldspars of the adularia variety.

Allochromatic Minerals...Minerals that are colorless when pure, the color coming from coloring agents, most of which are, cobalt, copper, chromium, titanium, vanadium, manganese, and iron. Examples of this are beryl,corundum, quartz, and spinel.

Alluvium...Continental sediments due to transport and deposition of gravel, sand, and clay by running water, rivers, and streams. (See alluvial)

Alpha rays...Helium atom…