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Showing posts from January 22, 2010

Andhra Satavahanas

Andhra Satavahanas

ORIGIN :
(a) Aitrareya Brahmana puts the Adhras beyond the pale of Aryanism.

(b) Nasik Prasasti lays claim to Gautmi as a brahamana.

(c) Puranas called them their services to Aryanism they were - admitted to the Aryan folk after their services to Arynanism - there is a reference to them in the Asoka inscriptions as well as by Megasthenes.

(d) Some call them Brahmins - some, mixed Brahmins of Naga origin, aqnd some, protectors of Brahmins,

(e) Numismatic evidence points to the origin in Western Deccan and Madhya Pradesh. Epigraphic and literary evidence points to their western origin - the figure of the founder of the dynasty is found in paition in western Deccan.

(f) Epigraphic evidence refers to them as Satavahanas, not as Andhras.

(g) Possibly, Andhra is the Tribal name : Satavahana, the dynastic name, and satakarni, the Surname.

SOURCES :
(a) Puranas - mention 30 kings,.

(b) Aitrareya Brahmina.

(c) Literary sources -- Gunadhya's Brihatkatha. And Leelavati, wh…

Transport and communication part 2

The Suez and the Panama Canals are two vital man-made navigation canals or waterways which serve as gateways of commerce for both the eastern and western worlds.

The Suez Canal: constructed in 1869 in Egypt between Port Said in the north and Port Suez in the south linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. It gives Europe a new gateway to the Indian Ocean and reduces direct sea-route distance between Liverpool and Colombo compared to the Cape of Good Hope route
The Panama Canal: This canal connects the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. Constructed across the Panama Isthmus between Panama City and Colon by the U.S. It shortens the distance between New York and San Francisco by 13,000 km by sea. .
Inland Waterways : Rivers, canals, lakes and coastal areas have been important waterways
The development of inland waterways is dependent on the navigability width and depth of the channel, continuity in the water flow and transport technology in use.
Rivers are the o…

Transport and Communication part 1

Transport, communication and trade establish links between producing centers and consuming centers

TRANSPORT
Transport is a service or facility for the carriage of persons and goods from one place to the other using humans, animals and different kinds of vehicles
Such movements take place over land, water and air
Roads and railways form part of land transport
shipping and waterways and airways are the other two modes
Pipelines carry materials like petroleum, natural gas, and ores in liquidities form.
What is a Transport Network?
Several places (nodes) joined together by a series of routes (links) to form a pattern.


MODES OF TRANSPORTATION

The principal modes of world transportation: land, water, air , pipelines.
Land Transport :

1. Most of the movement of goods and services takes place over land
2.first public railway line was opened in 1825 between Stockton and Darlington in northern
England and then onwards
3. Liquids like mineral oil, water, sludge and sewers are transported by pipelines

Ro…