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NCERT 12 Human geography Chap 4: human development

NCERT 12 Human geography Chap 4: human development Both growth and development refer to changes over a period of time. Growth is quantitative and value neutral. It may have positive or negative sign.Development is a qualitative change which is always value positive. Development occurs when positive growth takes place. Growth does not mean development always.The concept of human development was introduced by Dr Mahbub-ul-Haq. He described human development as development that enlarges people’s choices and improves their lives. People are central to all development in this concept. The basic goal of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful life. The idea of human-development is supported by   equality, sustainability, productivity and empowerment.Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities.Productivity means human labor productivity or productivity in terms of human-work. Empowerment means to have the power to make choices. …

NCERT 12 human geography chap 3: population composition

People can be distinguished by their age, sex and place of residence.


Other distinguishing attributes of the population are occupation, education and life-expectancy.


SEX composition:





The number of women and men in a country is an important demographic characteristic.
The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called sex-ratio.
it is calculated in some country by this formula sex ratio = ( male population /female population )*1000 or the number of males per thousand females
In India ,the sex ratio is worked out using the formula
sex ratio = ( female population /male population) or the number of females per thousand males
The sex-ratio is important information about status of women in a country.
The world population reflects a sex ratio of 990 females per 1000 males.
The highest sex-ratio is recorded in the world in Latvia which is 1187 females per 1000 males
The lowest sex-ratio is recorded in the world in U.A.E which is 468 f…

Fundamentals of human-geography: Chapter 2::: The World Population :::: Distribution Growth Density

A country is known by its people.
The population of world is unevenly distributed.
Patterns of population distribution and density help us to understand the demographic characteristics of any area.
The term population refers to the way people are spaced over earth surface.
90 % of the world population lives in about 10 % of its lands area.
The 10 most populous countries of the world contribute about 60% of the world's population.
Of these 10 countries, 6 are located in Asia.
The top 10 populous countries in world :

China
India
United states
Indonesia
Brazil
Pakistan
CLS
Bangladesh
Japan
Nigeria
Each unit of land has limited capacity to support people living on it.
Density of population = [population\area]


Factors affecting the population distribution
Geographical factor :


Availability of fresh water: it is vital for life. Denser population found near rich sources of fresh water like Indo-Gangatic plains and In Egypt near Nile River.
Landforms: