Skip to main content


“In view of escalated terrorist attacks in the recent years, the enactment of the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) would not have been more contextual and timely.” Comment.
The latter half of 2008 witnessed a series of terrorist attacks in various cities of the country, including Bangalore, New Delhi, Guwahati and Mumbai. The attack on Mumbai was so intense that it did what 20 other terrorist strikes on the Indian mainland outside the State of J & K during the last four years could not do. It coaxed the UPA government to introduce a new anti-terrorist law called Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA).
The new anti-terror Act has several provisions that were part of POTA. These include detention without bail upto 180 days, police custody for the accused upto 30 days, no provision for bail for foreign nationals arrested under the UAPA and no bail for the Indian nationals if the court is satisfied that the allegation is prima facie true.
In addition to the above provisions similar to POTA, a few new clauses have also been added. These have been incorporated on the basis of various suggestions received over the years. The government also tried to cover the contingencies and criminal acts related to terrorism which have not been appropriately covered under other laws of the land. The new Act also has the provision for 10 years’ imprisonment for getting explosives, radioactive substances, nuclear devices etc with the intention of abetting the terrorist acts. UAPA also has provision for life imprisonment for organizing terrorist camps or for recruiting any person for any act of terrorism.    
It must, however, be understood that special anti-terror Acts like UAPA act only as deterrent and the terror attacks cannot be stopped just by having stringent legislative Acts. To prevent the terrorist attacks the country has to take preventive measures. First and foremost could be to beef up the security at soft target points. In addition, there is a need for having a foolproof intelligence system so that any conspiracy immediately becomes known to the security agencies. People also have to be vigilant towards any such attempts.


Popular posts from this blog



13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


The revitalization of Pancha…

Q. What is the meaning of the terms like ‘Pardon’, ‘Reprieve’, ‘Respite’, ‘Remission’ and ‘Commutation’ with respect to the power of the President to grant pardon to convicted persons?

Ans. In terms of their scope and effect, these terms have specific connotations. The effect of Pardon is to abolish punishment and to absolve the convict of all charges. If Pardon is granted, it is assured as if the convict has not committed any crime. The convict will not face any disabilities due to the allegations and charges made against him. ‘Remission’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment. For example, the imprisonment for 20 years may be reduced to the imprisonment for 10 years. ‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. For example, punishment to death may be changed to life imprisonment. ‘Respite’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. For example, the punishment to death awarded to a pregnant woman, may be changed to simple life imprisonment. Respite means delay in execution of punishment especially that of death, in order to …



1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities


After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.


The dawn of 21st century is marked by decentralized governance both as a strategy and philosophy of brining about reforms and changes in democracies. These changes led to such virtues of transparency, responsiveness and accountability and ensures good governance. Today decentralization and democracy are the most significant themes in the development discourse. In the present contex…