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question-answer 12 from Orkut

291.  What is "FIST",a prog launched by the GoI recently? Fund for Improvement of S&T infrastructure in universities & higher educational institutions (FIST)"
292 boris shakhalin is related to which sport? Gymnastics
 293.Creator of wikipedia? JIMMY WALES
 294.The Indian state that recenlty made "Sanskirit" as its second language is uttarakhand
 295.what is the other name of nobel prize in economics?
Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel ..
 296 In which Indian constitutional article there are provision of appointment of same person for governor of two or more state? article153 
 ***Which bank recently reached the 2nd position in India in terms of its business size? punjab national bank
 297 what is pangsau pass winter festival? It conjoins all the diverse tribes of the North East and Myanmar to reveal their customs and culture in broader perspective.  the cultural carnival has traversed all the social barriers, inspiring the secluded regions to celebrate the ethnic existences.  

298.which award was awarded to P.Sainath? Bharat Asmita national award. For further readings (such as 'the other recipients, instituted by...etc . etc') =
299 what is Gate of heavenly peace,where is it?
  The Tiananmen or literally the "Gate of Heavenly Peace", is a famous monument in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China.In 1989, in front of Tiananmen, hundreds of unarmed pro-democracy civilian demonstrators were shot by PLA troops under government command..
 300.what was the main agenda of Manmohan singh during the recent visit to Russia? new defense deals and boosting trade 
 301 Devendra pandey committee is related to which thing? Committee to study implementation of Forest Rights Act.................... Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) and Ministry of Tribal Affairs have jointly set up a 10-member committee under Devendra Pandey, former director general, Forest Survey of India.The committee will study the impact of the Forest Rights Act on forest management and suggest necessary policy changewhich is india's total electrified district? s for better management of forestry sector. 
 302 who is the first chief election commissioner of India? sukumar sen
 303which is india's total electrified district? Pallakad district of Kerala
304. What is SBI SMILE scheme? specially targeted to encourage small and medium enterprises in the country. State Bank of India (SBI) will provide interest-free seed capital of up to Rs 10 lakh to aspiring entreprenuers under a new scheme,SBI SMILE, which is specially targeted to encourage small and medium enterprises in the country.
305- what is CEMILAC?   -Air Force wants Centre for Military Airworthiness (CEMILAC), to do the certification. CEMILAC to certify Saras light transporter aircraft as Directorate General of Civil Aviation(DGCA) lacks the requisite experience and expertise.
Q.306 when and which amendments introduced fundamental duties of citizens? fundamental duties are introduced by 42nd amendment in 1976.
 307 who is the director general of world intellectual property organisation?-Francis Gurry
308name the largest private military company?  308Xe Services LLC also known as Blackwater
309. Which Indian company holds the top rank in Fortune 500 global list. IOC
310. whats the name of the lady in the famous monalisa painting? Lisa del Giocondo also known as Lisa Gherardini.
311who is the founder of "HINDUSTANI PRACHAR SABHA"?   Mahatma Gandhi... to promote Hindi...
312. What at is the soul of Indian Constitution? PREAMBLE.... Dr. Ambedkar considered one Fundamental Right to be the heart and soul of the Indian Constitution,that comes in preamble.
313 what is NLM-UNESCO award,when it was instituted?


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13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


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1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

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After studying this unit, you should be able to:

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