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question-answer 11 from Orkut

Q261-which body brings out the Economic survey of India? ministry of finance
 Q262-who is the author of the riots?   Shashi Tharoor 
Q263  What's "Nirbhay"?.....(Clue:- Related to Defence):Nirbhay is new cruise missile(with a range of 800 km)..being developed by India-only the propulsion system design system has been completed.

 264-which country holds the chair of G-20 in 2010? Heads of states of G-20 members meet biannually at the G-20 Summit. The 2010 G-20 Summits are scheduled to be held in Toronto on June 26–27 and Seoul on November 11–13.  (further reading= )
Qin264.b  in BT brinjal which gene was infused? Cry1Ac
 Q264.c: Which company is dealing with the production of Bt Brinjal in India? Maharashtra Hybrid Seed Company-(Mahyco-) 
 Q 265 name the largest tribe in india ( easy question! ) and the smallest tribe in india (very difficult question! )
Largest tribe - Gonds  
Smallest tribe- dhimal (west bengal) around 900 population, zakhring tribe (arunachal pradesh) around 300 population. going to be extinct within few years.
Q266- what is MARCOS  MARCOS- Marine commando force (special unit of Indian Navy) 
 Q 267-President of NASSCOM? SOM MITTAL 
 Q-268 Who has been appointed as the new interlocutor to facilitate dialogue with the major insurgent outfit, the National Socialist Council of Nagaland Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM). R.S pandey 
 Q-269-Name the first Latin American country with which India signed Preferential Trade agreement? chile
 Qn.270: Head of DRDO? Dr. vkV.K. Saraswat 

 q-271 what was the purpose of B K Somashekhara Commission ? to inquire into the church attacks in karnataka held in 2008
q 272  who was the first indian leader to suggest hindi as the national language?  Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Q273 - currency of venezuela and why it was in news recently? Bolivar- Was in news as it was devalued  Q274-Where is world's first youth Olympics scheduled to be held in 2010? singapore
 Q 275 give the chinese name of the indo-china disputed territory in north east india (indian name is arunachal pradesh) ? its called zangnan or south tibet
 q 276 what is the name of the indian intelligence agency that is formed alongwith exiled- tibetans and focus on china-tibet regions? special frontier force 
 Q277 lotha language is spoken which state? Nagaland 
  Q278The above language is child of which language, (its origin language) ? sino tibetan origin 
Q.280 what is Srinivas Ramanujan number? 1729

Q 280(b) who has been elected as costa Rica's president? Laura Chinchilla(First woman president) 
 Q281-Who is the 2009 Abel Prize winner?  Mikhail Gromov 
 Q.282 Moinul Haque is the recipient of Sangeet natak academy recently. He is an expert of what? mime

 Q-283 what is FH77 B05 towed howitzer ? next generation smart ammunition built by BAE systems. was showed in defence expo 2010 
 Q284- natchiappan committee was formed to look into which issue? Reservation for SCs, STs and OBCs 
 285. Who was the representative of Anglo- Indian Community in Constituent Assembly? Frank Anthony
 286.Raja Rammohan Roy and David Hara were associated with the foundation of the  :Hindu College
 Q287- what is LCPM 8 Is it the 8th conference on Low cost planetary Mission
 Q 288 Where is the Winter olympics is going on? Vancouver,Canada 

 Q-289 Why has "Kutumb",a flying doel been in the news recently? Kutumb was the mascot of the 11th South asian games
290 Which only judge of Supreme Court or High Court was removed/ dismissed from his post following impeachment after Indpendence? No judge has been impeached in independent India.. 


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13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


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Constitutional evolution under British ruleRegulating Act 1773beginning of British parliamentary control over the East India Companysubordination of the presidencies of Bombay and Madras to BengalGovernor of Bengal made Governal-Generalcouncil of Governor-General establishedSupreme Court established in CalcuttaPitt’s India Act 1784commercial and political activities of the Company separatedestablished a board of control over the CompanyCharter Act 1813trade monopoly of the Company abolishedmissionaries allowed to preach in IndiaCharter Act 1833Governor-General of Bengal becomes Governor-General of Indiafirst Governor-General Lord William Bentickends commercial activities of the CompanyCharter Act 1853legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s council separatedopen competition for Indian Civil Services establishedIndian Council Act 1861establishes legislative councils at the centre, presidencies and provincesGovernor-General’s executive council to have Indians as non…

Q. What is the meaning of the terms like ‘Pardon’, ‘Reprieve’, ‘Respite’, ‘Remission’ and ‘Commutation’ with respect to the power of the President to grant pardon to convicted persons?

Ans. In terms of their scope and effect, these terms have specific connotations. The effect of Pardon is to abolish punishment and to absolve the convict of all charges. If Pardon is granted, it is assured as if the convict has not committed any crime. The convict will not face any disabilities due to the allegations and charges made against him. ‘Remission’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment. For example, the imprisonment for 20 years may be reduced to the imprisonment for 10 years. ‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. For example, punishment to death may be changed to life imprisonment. ‘Respite’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. For example, the punishment to death awarded to a pregnant woman, may be changed to simple life imprisonment. Respite means delay in execution of punishment especially that of death, in order to …