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Thursday, March 25, 2010

Polity notes-5

Decentralization

· it has Administrative -political-legal nature.
· for example State Govt. transferring the power to Panchayats.
· Legal (because Constitution provides for it)
· Political (empowerment of people @ grassroots)
· Administrative (reduce work burden of field officers.)
Deconcentration

· has Administrative angle only.
· Maintaining Law and order is state Govt.'s responsibility but CM or Chief Secretary or Divisional Commissioner can't himself petrol around everywhere.
· So this work is transferred to District collector. (and he maintains it using the police force given to him.)
· so, When State Govt. gives powers to district collector for better Administrative reasons - this is Deconcentration.


Devolution

· in the fedaral structure, States are given their own powers over which they've complete authority, for example maintaining Law and order.
· Centre can't send CBI everywhere as and when & where it pleases, first it needs the permission of State Govt. to investigate the matter.
· This is devolution of powers. this is in political nature
· and its very hard to take way this power.
· (Except by modifying the Constitution but taking away the federal structure means you’ll kill the basic structure = Supreme Court won’t allow it. Thus its impossible.)



Delegation

· Suppose a police inspector collects bribe from entire district, but he's tired so he distributes the work amongs his sub-inspectors.
· This is delegation.
· the power can be taken away any time, (like when sub-inspectors are not giving him every Rupee collected or if he is in bad mood!)
· so in Delegation the power can be taken away very easily.

now you might wonder then
Devolution vs Decentralization.

· its easier to take away powers in Decentralization compared to devolution.
· Devolution is more powerful and make the recipient autonomous.
· More Autonomous in the sense, if Tehsildar goes to village then Sarpanch are going to do ‘yes sir yes sir’ while if a Minister of State from Centre Govt. goes to visit the state, then Chief Minister won’t fall into his feet & say ‘yes sir yes sir’, because CM is the ‘autonomous & powerful guy.’ thanks to the Constitution.
· for example as a Chief minister you can easily get any Gram Panchayat dissolved and call for new election after 6 months but its not that easy for a PM to get the state legislative dissolved / order Presidential rule in any state that easily. (Thanks to SC's directions.)
· [these things are done via President/Governer's order but you should know PM/CM & Cabinet has the real decision making power. and its merely carried out in the name of President /Governer]

what's difference in Delegation and Deconcentration

· deconcentration is systematic method to improve efficiency & is done via GR (Govt. resolution) etc.
· While delegation is for quick emergency solutions / for individual cases it may or may not have written orders
· Deconcentration is ‘uniform’ in the sense suppose if you gave power to one DC then you’ve to give that power to All DCs in the state.
· In Delegation its quick to take away the power, it all depends on mood of boss, while in case of De-concentration its not that easy.

A comparative table






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List Of Commeties In India


  1. A C Shah Committee:NBFC
  2. A Ghosh Committee:Final Accounts
  3. A Ghosh Committee:Modalities Of Implementation Of New 20 Point Programme
  4. A Ghosh Committee:Frauds & Malpractices In Banks
  5. Abid Hussain Committee :Development Of Capital Markets
  6. Adhyarjuna Committee:Changes In NI Act And Stamp Act
  7. AK Bhuchar Committee:Coordination Between Term Lending Institutions And Commercial Banks
  8. B Eradi Committee:Insolvency And Wind Up Laws
  9. B Sivaraman Committee:Institutional Credit For Agricultural & Rural Development
  10. B Venkatappaiah Committee:All India Rural Credit Review
  11. BD Shah Committee:Stock Lending Scheme
  12. BD Thakar Committee:Job Criteria In Bank Loans (Approach)
  13. Bhagwati Committee:Unemployment
  14. Bhagwati Committee:Public Welfare
  15. Bhave Committee:Share Transfer Reforms
  16. Bhide Committee:Coordination Between Commercial Banks And SFC's
  17. Bhootlingam Committee:Wage, Income & Prices
  18. C Rao Committee:Agricultural Policy
  19. CE Kamath Committee:Multi Agency Approach In Agricultural Finance
  20. Chatalier Committee:Finance To Small Scale Industry
  21. Chesi Committee: Direct Taxes
  22. Cook Committee (On Behalf Of BIS - Under Basel Committee ):Capital Adequacy Of Banks
  23. D R Mehta Committee:Review Progress And Recommend Improvement Measures Of IRDP
  24. Damle Committee:MICR
  25. Dandekar Committee:Regional Imbalances
  26. Dantwala Committee:Estimation Of Employments
  27. Dave Committee:Mutual Funds (Functioning)
  28. Dharia Committee:Public Distribution System
  29. DR Gadgil Committee:Agricultural Finance
  30. Dutta Committee:Industrial Licensing
  31. G Lakshmai Narayan Committee:Extension Of Credit Limits On Basis Of Consortium
  32. G Sundaram Committee:Export Credit
  33. Gadgil Committee (1969):Lead Banking System
  34. Godwala Committee:Rural Finance
  35. Goiporia Committee:Customer Service In Banks
  36. GS Dahotre Committee:Credit Requirements Of Leasing Industry
  37. GS Patel Committee:Carry Forward System On Stock Exchanges
  38. Hathi Committee:Soiled Banknotes
  39. Hazari Committee (1967):Industrial Policy
  40. IT Vaz Committee:Working Capital Finance In Banks
  41. J Reddy Committee:Reforms In Insurance Sector
  42. James Raj Committee:Functioning Of Public Sector Banks
  43. Jankiramanan Committee:Securities Transactions Of Banks & Financial Institutions
  44. JV Shetty Committee:Consortium Advances
  45. K Madhav Das Committee:Urban Cooperative Banks
  46. Kalyansundaram Committee:Introduction Of Factoring Services In India
  47. Kamath Committee:Education Loan Scheme
  48. Karve Committee:Small Scale Industry
  49. KB Chore Committee:To Review The Symbol Of Cash Credit Q
  50. Khanna Committee:Non Performing Assets
  51. Khusrau Committee:Agricultural Credit
  52. KS Krishnaswamy Committee:Role Of Banks In Priority Sector And 20 Point Economic Programme
  53. L K Jha Committee:Indirect Taxes
  54. LC Gupta Committee:Financial Derivatives
  55. Mahadevan Committee:Single Window System
  56. Mahalanobis Committee:Income Distribution
  57. Marathe Committee:Licensing Of New Banks
  58. ML Dantwala Committee:Regional Rural Banks
  59. Mrs. KS Shere Committee:Electronic Fund Transfer
  60. Nadkarni Committee:Improved Procedures For Transactions In PSU Bonds And Units
  61. Nariman Committee:Branch Expansion Programme
  62. Narsimham Committee:Financial System
  63. Omkar Goswami Committee:Industrial Sickness And Corporate Restructuring
  64. P R Nayak Committee:Institutional Credit To SSI Sector
  65. P Selvam Committee:Non Performing Assets Of Banks
  66. PC Luther Committee:Productivity, Operational Efficiency & Profitability Of Banks
  67. PD Ojha Committee:Service Area Approach
  68. Pendarkar Committee:Review The System Of Inspection Of Commercial, RRB And Urban Cooperative Banks
  69. Pillai Committee:Pay Scales Of Bank Officers
  70. PL Tandon Committee:Export Strategy
  71. PR Khanna Committee-Develop Appropriate Supervisory Framework For NBFC
  72. Purshottam Das Committee:Agricultural Finance And Cooperative Societies
  73. R Jilani Banks:Inspection System Of Banks
  74. R S Saria Committee:Agricultural Finance And Cooperative Societies
  75. Raghavan Committee:Competition Law
  76. Raja Chelliah Committee:Tax Reforms
  77. Rajamannar Committee:Centre - State Fiscal Relationships
  78. Rajamannar Committee:Changes In Banking Laws , Bouncing Of Checks Etc.
  79. Rakesh Mohan Committee:Petro Chemical Sector
  80. Ram Niwas Mirdha Committee (JPC):Securities Scam
  81. Rangrajan Committee:Computerization Of Banking Industry
  82. Rangrajan Committee:Public Sector Disinvestment
  83. Rashid Jilani Committee:Cash Credit System
  84. Ray Committee:Industrial Sickness
  85. RG Saraiya Committee (1972):Banking Commission
  86. RH Khan Committee:Harmonization Of Banks And Ssis
  87. RK Hajare Committee-Differential Interest Rates Scheme
  88. RK Talwar Committee:Customer Service
  89. RK Talwar Committee:Enactment Having A Bearing On Agro Landings By Commercial Banks
  90. RN Malhotra Committee:Reforms In Insurance Sector
  91. RN Mirdha Committee:Cooperative Societies
  92. RV Gupta Committee:Agricultural Credit Delivery
  93. S Padmanabhan Committee:Onsite Supervision Function Of Banks
  94. S Padmanabhan Committee:Inspection Of Banks (By RBI)
  95. Samal Committee:Rural Credit
  96. SC Choksi Committee-Direct Tax Law
  97. Shankar Lal Gauri Committee:Agricultural Marketing
  98. SK Kalia Committee:Role Of NGO And SHG In Credit
  99. SL Kapoor Committee:Institutional Credit To SSI
  100. Sodhani Committee:Foreign Exchange Markets In NRI Investment In India
  101. SS Kohli Committee:Rehabilitation Of Sick Industrial Units
  102. SS Kohli Committee:Rationalization Of Staff Strength In Banks
  103. SS Kohli Committee:Willful Defaulters
  104. SS Nadkarni Committee:Trading In Public Sector Banks
  105. SS Tarapore Committee:Capital Account Convertibility
  106. Sukhmoy Chakravarty Committee:To Review The Working Of Monetary System
  107. Tambe Committee:Term Loans To SSI
  108. Tandon Committee:Follow Up Of Bank Credit
  109. Tandon Committee:Industrial Sickness
  110. Thakkar Committee:Credit Schemes To Self Employed
  111. Thingalaya Committee:Restructuring Of RRB
  112. Tiwari Committee:Rehabilitation Of Sick Industrial Undertakings
  113. UK Sharma Committee:Lead Bank Scheme (Review)
  114. Usha Thorat Panel: Financial Inclusion
  115. Vaghul Committee:Mutual Fund Scheme
  116. Varshney Committee:Revised Methods For Loans (>2 Lakhs)
  117. Venketaiya Committee:Review Of Rural Financing System
  118. Vipin Malik Committee:Consolidated Accounting By Banks
  119. VT Dehejia Committee:To Study Credit Needs Of Industry And Trade Likely To Be Inflated
  120. Vyas Committee:Rural Credit
  121. Wanchoo CommitteeD-irect Taxes
  122. WS Saraf Committee:Technology Issues In Banking Industry
  123. Y H Malegam Committee-Disclosure Norms For Public Issues
  124. YV Reddy Committee:Reforms In Small Savings

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