Skip to main content

Polity notes-5

Decentralization

· it has Administrative -political-legal nature.
· for example State Govt. transferring the power to Panchayats.
· Legal (because Constitution provides for it)
· Political (empowerment of people @ grassroots)
· Administrative (reduce work burden of field officers.)
Deconcentration

· has Administrative angle only.
· Maintaining Law and order is state Govt.'s responsibility but CM or Chief Secretary or Divisional Commissioner can't himself petrol around everywhere.
· So this work is transferred to District collector. (and he maintains it using the police force given to him.)
· so, When State Govt. gives powers to district collector for better Administrative reasons - this is Deconcentration.


Devolution

· in the fedaral structure, States are given their own powers over which they've complete authority, for example maintaining Law and order.
· Centre can't send CBI everywhere as and when & where it pleases, first it needs the permission of State Govt. to investigate the matter.
· This is devolution of powers. this is in political nature
· and its very hard to take way this power.
· (Except by modifying the Constitution but taking away the federal structure means you’ll kill the basic structure = Supreme Court won’t allow it. Thus its impossible.)



Delegation

· Suppose a police inspector collects bribe from entire district, but he's tired so he distributes the work amongs his sub-inspectors.
· This is delegation.
· the power can be taken away any time, (like when sub-inspectors are not giving him every Rupee collected or if he is in bad mood!)
· so in Delegation the power can be taken away very easily.

now you might wonder then
Devolution vs Decentralization.

· its easier to take away powers in Decentralization compared to devolution.
· Devolution is more powerful and make the recipient autonomous.
· More Autonomous in the sense, if Tehsildar goes to village then Sarpanch are going to do ‘yes sir yes sir’ while if a Minister of State from Centre Govt. goes to visit the state, then Chief Minister won’t fall into his feet & say ‘yes sir yes sir’, because CM is the ‘autonomous & powerful guy.’ thanks to the Constitution.
· for example as a Chief minister you can easily get any Gram Panchayat dissolved and call for new election after 6 months but its not that easy for a PM to get the state legislative dissolved / order Presidential rule in any state that easily. (Thanks to SC's directions.)
· [these things are done via President/Governer's order but you should know PM/CM & Cabinet has the real decision making power. and its merely carried out in the name of President /Governer]

what's difference in Delegation and Deconcentration

· deconcentration is systematic method to improve efficiency & is done via GR (Govt. resolution) etc.
· While delegation is for quick emergency solutions / for individual cases it may or may not have written orders
· Deconcentration is ‘uniform’ in the sense suppose if you gave power to one DC then you’ve to give that power to All DCs in the state.
· In Delegation its quick to take away the power, it all depends on mood of boss, while in case of De-concentration its not that easy.

A comparative table






****************************************

List Of Commeties In India


  1. A C Shah Committee:NBFC
  2. A Ghosh Committee:Final Accounts
  3. A Ghosh Committee:Modalities Of Implementation Of New 20 Point Programme
  4. A Ghosh Committee:Frauds & Malpractices In Banks
  5. Abid Hussain Committee :Development Of Capital Markets
  6. Adhyarjuna Committee:Changes In NI Act And Stamp Act
  7. AK Bhuchar Committee:Coordination Between Term Lending Institutions And Commercial Banks
  8. B Eradi Committee:Insolvency And Wind Up Laws
  9. B Sivaraman Committee:Institutional Credit For Agricultural & Rural Development
  10. B Venkatappaiah Committee:All India Rural Credit Review
  11. BD Shah Committee:Stock Lending Scheme
  12. BD Thakar Committee:Job Criteria In Bank Loans (Approach)
  13. Bhagwati Committee:Unemployment
  14. Bhagwati Committee:Public Welfare
  15. Bhave Committee:Share Transfer Reforms
  16. Bhide Committee:Coordination Between Commercial Banks And SFC's
  17. Bhootlingam Committee:Wage, Income & Prices
  18. C Rao Committee:Agricultural Policy
  19. CE Kamath Committee:Multi Agency Approach In Agricultural Finance
  20. Chatalier Committee:Finance To Small Scale Industry
  21. Chesi Committee: Direct Taxes
  22. Cook Committee (On Behalf Of BIS - Under Basel Committee ):Capital Adequacy Of Banks
  23. D R Mehta Committee:Review Progress And Recommend Improvement Measures Of IRDP
  24. Damle Committee:MICR
  25. Dandekar Committee:Regional Imbalances
  26. Dantwala Committee:Estimation Of Employments
  27. Dave Committee:Mutual Funds (Functioning)
  28. Dharia Committee:Public Distribution System
  29. DR Gadgil Committee:Agricultural Finance
  30. Dutta Committee:Industrial Licensing
  31. G Lakshmai Narayan Committee:Extension Of Credit Limits On Basis Of Consortium
  32. G Sundaram Committee:Export Credit
  33. Gadgil Committee (1969):Lead Banking System
  34. Godwala Committee:Rural Finance
  35. Goiporia Committee:Customer Service In Banks
  36. GS Dahotre Committee:Credit Requirements Of Leasing Industry
  37. GS Patel Committee:Carry Forward System On Stock Exchanges
  38. Hathi Committee:Soiled Banknotes
  39. Hazari Committee (1967):Industrial Policy
  40. IT Vaz Committee:Working Capital Finance In Banks
  41. J Reddy Committee:Reforms In Insurance Sector
  42. James Raj Committee:Functioning Of Public Sector Banks
  43. Jankiramanan Committee:Securities Transactions Of Banks & Financial Institutions
  44. JV Shetty Committee:Consortium Advances
  45. K Madhav Das Committee:Urban Cooperative Banks
  46. Kalyansundaram Committee:Introduction Of Factoring Services In India
  47. Kamath Committee:Education Loan Scheme
  48. Karve Committee:Small Scale Industry
  49. KB Chore Committee:To Review The Symbol Of Cash Credit Q
  50. Khanna Committee:Non Performing Assets
  51. Khusrau Committee:Agricultural Credit
  52. KS Krishnaswamy Committee:Role Of Banks In Priority Sector And 20 Point Economic Programme
  53. L K Jha Committee:Indirect Taxes
  54. LC Gupta Committee:Financial Derivatives
  55. Mahadevan Committee:Single Window System
  56. Mahalanobis Committee:Income Distribution
  57. Marathe Committee:Licensing Of New Banks
  58. ML Dantwala Committee:Regional Rural Banks
  59. Mrs. KS Shere Committee:Electronic Fund Transfer
  60. Nadkarni Committee:Improved Procedures For Transactions In PSU Bonds And Units
  61. Nariman Committee:Branch Expansion Programme
  62. Narsimham Committee:Financial System
  63. Omkar Goswami Committee:Industrial Sickness And Corporate Restructuring
  64. P R Nayak Committee:Institutional Credit To SSI Sector
  65. P Selvam Committee:Non Performing Assets Of Banks
  66. PC Luther Committee:Productivity, Operational Efficiency & Profitability Of Banks
  67. PD Ojha Committee:Service Area Approach
  68. Pendarkar Committee:Review The System Of Inspection Of Commercial, RRB And Urban Cooperative Banks
  69. Pillai Committee:Pay Scales Of Bank Officers
  70. PL Tandon Committee:Export Strategy
  71. PR Khanna Committee-Develop Appropriate Supervisory Framework For NBFC
  72. Purshottam Das Committee:Agricultural Finance And Cooperative Societies
  73. R Jilani Banks:Inspection System Of Banks
  74. R S Saria Committee:Agricultural Finance And Cooperative Societies
  75. Raghavan Committee:Competition Law
  76. Raja Chelliah Committee:Tax Reforms
  77. Rajamannar Committee:Centre - State Fiscal Relationships
  78. Rajamannar Committee:Changes In Banking Laws , Bouncing Of Checks Etc.
  79. Rakesh Mohan Committee:Petro Chemical Sector
  80. Ram Niwas Mirdha Committee (JPC):Securities Scam
  81. Rangrajan Committee:Computerization Of Banking Industry
  82. Rangrajan Committee:Public Sector Disinvestment
  83. Rashid Jilani Committee:Cash Credit System
  84. Ray Committee:Industrial Sickness
  85. RG Saraiya Committee (1972):Banking Commission
  86. RH Khan Committee:Harmonization Of Banks And Ssis
  87. RK Hajare Committee-Differential Interest Rates Scheme
  88. RK Talwar Committee:Customer Service
  89. RK Talwar Committee:Enactment Having A Bearing On Agro Landings By Commercial Banks
  90. RN Malhotra Committee:Reforms In Insurance Sector
  91. RN Mirdha Committee:Cooperative Societies
  92. RV Gupta Committee:Agricultural Credit Delivery
  93. S Padmanabhan Committee:Onsite Supervision Function Of Banks
  94. S Padmanabhan Committee:Inspection Of Banks (By RBI)
  95. Samal Committee:Rural Credit
  96. SC Choksi Committee-Direct Tax Law
  97. Shankar Lal Gauri Committee:Agricultural Marketing
  98. SK Kalia Committee:Role Of NGO And SHG In Credit
  99. SL Kapoor Committee:Institutional Credit To SSI
  100. Sodhani Committee:Foreign Exchange Markets In NRI Investment In India
  101. SS Kohli Committee:Rehabilitation Of Sick Industrial Units
  102. SS Kohli Committee:Rationalization Of Staff Strength In Banks
  103. SS Kohli Committee:Willful Defaulters
  104. SS Nadkarni Committee:Trading In Public Sector Banks
  105. SS Tarapore Committee:Capital Account Convertibility
  106. Sukhmoy Chakravarty Committee:To Review The Working Of Monetary System
  107. Tambe Committee:Term Loans To SSI
  108. Tandon Committee:Follow Up Of Bank Credit
  109. Tandon Committee:Industrial Sickness
  110. Thakkar Committee:Credit Schemes To Self Employed
  111. Thingalaya Committee:Restructuring Of RRB
  112. Tiwari Committee:Rehabilitation Of Sick Industrial Undertakings
  113. UK Sharma Committee:Lead Bank Scheme (Review)
  114. Usha Thorat Panel: Financial Inclusion
  115. Vaghul Committee:Mutual Fund Scheme
  116. Varshney Committee:Revised Methods For Loans (>2 Lakhs)
  117. Venketaiya Committee:Review Of Rural Financing System
  118. Vipin Malik Committee:Consolidated Accounting By Banks
  119. VT Dehejia Committee:To Study Credit Needs Of Industry And Trade Likely To Be Inflated
  120. Vyas Committee:Rural Credit
  121. Wanchoo CommitteeD-irect Taxes
  122. WS Saraf Committee:Technology Issues In Banking Industry
  123. Y H Malegam Committee-Disclosure Norms For Public Issues
  124. YV Reddy Committee:Reforms In Small Savings

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

UNIT 13 FEATURES OF 73rd AND 74th CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT

Structure

13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities

13.0 LEARNING OUTCOME

After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.

13.1 INTRODUCTION

The revitalization of Pancha…

General Studies :: Indian Polity #1

Constitutional evolution under British ruleRegulating Act 1773beginning of British parliamentary control over the East India Companysubordination of the presidencies of Bombay and Madras to BengalGovernor of Bengal made Governal-Generalcouncil of Governor-General establishedSupreme Court established in CalcuttaPitt’s India Act 1784commercial and political activities of the Company separatedestablished a board of control over the CompanyCharter Act 1813trade monopoly of the Company abolishedmissionaries allowed to preach in IndiaCharter Act 1833Governor-General of Bengal becomes Governor-General of Indiafirst Governor-General Lord William Bentickends commercial activities of the CompanyCharter Act 1853legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s council separatedopen competition for Indian Civil Services establishedIndian Council Act 1861establishes legislative councils at the centre, presidencies and provincesGovernor-General’s executive council to have Indians as non…

UNIT 1 CONCEPT, EVOLUTION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF DEMOCRATIC DECENTRALISATION

Structure

1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities

1.0 LEARNING OUTCOME

After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The dawn of 21st century is marked by decentralized governance both as a strategy and philosophy of brining about reforms and changes in democracies. These changes led to such virtues of transparency, responsiveness and accountability and ensures good governance. Today decentralization and democracy are the most significant themes in the development discourse. In the present contex…