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Thursday, March 25, 2010

Polity notes-4

How is the President of India elected?

How is the President of India elected?

As our present President’s term is set to end, it is time we learn a bit about the Presidential election. The President is elected by an electoral college, consisting of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament and state legislative assemblies. For the Presidential elections, there are thus a total of 4,896 potential electors, consisting of 543 Lok Sabha members, 233 Rajya Sabha members and 4,120 MLAs.

The voting strength of each elector is different and is determined on the basis of proportional representation. The population of each state is divided by 1,000 and then by the number of elected MLAs in the assembly to yield the value of each MLA’s votes from that state. In all, the MLAs of all the assemblies put together have 5,49,474 votes. The system also tries to ensure a balance between the value of votes of MPs and state legislators. This is done by dividing the votes of all the MLAs by the number of MPs, which is 776, to work out the value of each MP’s votes. This yields a figure of 708 votes per MP. Hence the total value of the MPs’ votes is 5,49,408 (776 x 708). This is slightly different from the total votes of the MLAs due to rounding effect. The total votes in the electoral college thus is 10,98,882.

The Presidential contestant is declared elected when he secures a simple majority i.e., 1 vote more than half the total votes polled by the electoral college. The electoral college votes by a system of ‘single transferable vote’. What this means is that the contestants in the fray are given preferences by the voters. If no candidate reaches the simple absolute majority in the first round of counting, then the candidate with the least polled votes is eliminated and the second preferences marked in his polled votes are added to the respective contestants. The process is continued till one of the candidates reaches the simple absolute majority and is declared the winner.

The only occasion when second preference votes had to be taken into account was in 1969 when VV Giri led after the first round over Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy
 
 
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Immoral Trafficking Bill from 22nd May 2006

The ammendment to the Immoral Trafficking (Prevention) Act was introduced by Government on 22nd May 2006.

The amendment focuses on trafficking then sex workers.
  • The age of affected children is raised from 16 to 18 years
  • Increase in punishment for managing Brothels
  • Enhance the term of detention in the corrective institution from five to seven years.
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Indian Civil Services-A Great Begining

The All India Services Act, 1951 and Rules and Regulations framed there under to regulate the recruitment and conditions of service in respect of the All India Services viz. Indian Administrative Service, Indian Police Service and Indian Forest Service.

1) The first regular batch of the IAS was the 1948 batch.

2) The All India Forest Service came into being in 1966.

3) India’s first ICS officer Satyendranath Tagore.

4) Smt. E. B. Joshi, the first woman officer of the Indian Administrative Services (IAS) became the first woman IAS official of the country after the Government allowed women candidates to appear in the premier civil services examination just after Independence.

5) Smt. Kiran Bedi is an IPS officer and is the first woman to join the Indian Police Service (IPS) in 1972.

6) Smt. Kanchan Chowdhury, the first woman Director General of Police of India (DGP).

7) Introduction of an open competitive examination for the selection of the ICS officials under the Charter Act of 1853.

8) The first Public Service Commission was set up on October 1st, 1926.

9) After Independance, on 26th January, 1950, the Federal Public Service Commission was accorded a constitutional status as an autonomous entity and given the title “ Union Public Service Commission.

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Legal Facts & Commission on Child Labour !!!

Legal Facts & Commission on Child Labour .......!
  • 1933 = the first act in India relating to child labour was the Enactment of children Act of Feb 1933.
  • 1938 = Employment of children act
  • 1948 = Minimum Wages act
  • 1948 = Factories act
  • 1951 = Plantation Labour Act
  • 1952 = Mines act
  • 1961 = Motor Transport Workers act
  • 1966 = Bidi & Cigar Workers act ( conditions of employment)
  • 1974 = Being a party to the UN Declaration on the Rights of the child 1959, India adopted the National Policy of Children in 1974.
  • 1979 = UN General Assembly declared in 1979 as the international Year of Child.
  • 1986 = Child Labour ( Prohition & Regulation act )
  • 1986 = Technical Advisory Committee Child Labour under section 5 of the child labour act government is empowered to constitute a child labour technical advisory committee.
  • 1987 = National Child Labour Policy.
  • 1991 = International Program on the Elimination of Child LAbour is a global program launched by ILO in Dec 1991.India was teh first country to join in 1992.
  • 1994 = National Authority for the Elimination of child labour was set up on 26th Sept.1994
  • 1996 = Supreme court Directions on Child Labour.
  • 2006 = Labour Ministry issued notification on Aug 1, 2006 to ban employment of children from Oct10.2006
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Main Provision of Amended Cr. PC Act

The Amendment
  • prohibits arrest of a woman after sunset and before sunrise;
  • and requires police to give information about the arrest of person as well as place where he is being held to anyone nominated by accused;
  • In no case will an undertrial be detained beyond the maximum period of imprisonment provided for the offence;
  • The Act allows the use of DNA and other techniques during medical examination of the accused.
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New Drug Policy from 2nd October 2006

Effective w.e.f 2nd October 2006
  • Dual Language labels of medicines in English and Hindi
  • Mandatory to print MRP inclusive of all taxes
  • To reduce the trade margin by copy cats drug makers especially in generic medicines, the whole sale margin has been capped to 15% and retail margin to 35%, which may reduce drastically prices of some medicines.
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