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geography short notes -9


It is a geological land form consisting of a steep & often vertical column / columns of rocks in the sea near coast.

Stacks are formed when a part of a headland is eroded leaving small island. They are also form when natural arch collapses due to sub-aerial processes & gravity.

A stack may collapse / be eroded leaving a stums. Stacks forms most commonly on chalk cliffs, beacause of the medium resistance to erosion.

Cliffs with weaker rock such as clay tend to stump & erode too quickly to form stacks, while harder rocks such as granite erode in different ways. stacks are often important sites for nesting seabird.

It is also famous for rock climbing.

States and Rivers

1.Rivers flowing into Bay of Bengal

* Karnaphuli River from Mizoram and Bangladesh
* Meghna River from India and Bangladesh
o Titas River in Tripura
+ Haora River in Agartala

Brahmaputra River Basin

* Brahmaputra River
o Lohit River
o Burhidihing River
o Dihing River
o Kameng River
o Manas River
o Sankosh
o Yamuna
o Teesta River
+ Rangeet River
+ Lachen River
+ Lachung River
o Darla River in Bangladesh
+ Jaldhaka in Sikkim and West Bengal

Ganga River Basin

* Ganges River
o Hooghly River (distributary)
+ Damodar River
# Barakar River
+ Rupnarayan River
+ Ajay River
+ Mayurakshi river
+ Dwarakeswar river
+ Mundeswari river
o Meghna River (distributary)
o Padma River (distributary)
o Budhi Gandak
o Kosi River
o Gandak at Patna
o Son River
+ Koel River
+ Rihand River
o Ghaghara River (Gogra) or Karnali River in Nepal
o Yamuna River
+ Ban Ganga River
+ Betwa River
# Dhasan River
# Halali River
# Kaliasote River
+ Sindh River
# Kwari River
# Pahuj River in Bhind District Madhya Pradesh
+ Chambal River
# Banas River
* Berach River
o Ahar River
# Kali Sindh River
# Parbati River (Madhya Pradesh)
# Shipra River in Ujjain
+ Gambhir River
# Parbati River (Rajasthan)
o Gomti River
o Mahananda River
o Mahakali River
o Bhagirathi River
o Alaknanda River
o Maddie Phillips River

West Bengal Coastal Rivers

* Subarnarekha river
o Kharkai River
* Kangsabati River

Mahanadi River Basin

* Mahanadi River
o Brahmani River
+ South Koel River near Rourkela
+ Sankh River

Godavari River Basin

* Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra states
o Kolab River in Orissa State
o Indravati River in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra State and also in Chhattisgarh state
+ Bandiya River in Gadchiroli
o Pranhita River in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra State and also in Andhra Pradesh state
+ Dina River in Gadchiroli
+ Wainganga River in Gadchiroli, Chandrapur, Nagpur, Bhandara, Gondiya districts of Maharashtra state and Balaghat District of Madhya Pradesh State
# Sati River in Gadchiroli
* Khobragadi River in Gadchiroli
o Teepa River in Gadchiroli
# Chulband River in Bhandara, Gondiya districts of Maharashtra state
# Kanhan River in Nagpur
* Nag River in Nagpur
* Pench River in Nagpur
* Kolhar River in Nagpur
# Sur River in Bhandara, Nagpur districts of Maharashtra state
# Bawanthadi River in Bhandara
# Wagh River in Gondiya
+ Wardha River in Chandrapur, Yavatmal, Wardha, Nagpur, Amravati
# Penganga River in Andhra Pradesh state and Chandrapur, Yavatmal, Nanded, Hingoli, Washim and Buldhana districts of Maharashtra State
* Vidarbha River, Yavatmal in Yavatmal
* Khuni River in Yavatmal
* Waghadi River in Yavatmal
* Arunavati River in Yavatmal, Washim
* Adan River in Yavatmal, Washim
* Kayadhu River in Nanded, Hingoli
# Vena River in Wardha, Nagpur districts of Maharashtra state
* Pothara River in Wardha
o Lai River in Wardha
* Bor River in Wardha, Nagpur districts of Maharashtra state
# Yashoda River in Wardha
* Dham River in Wardha
* Bhakalee River in Wardha
# Ramganga River in Yavatmal
# Bembala River in Yavatmal, Amravati, Washim districts of Maharashtra state
# Vidarbha River, Amravati in Amravati
# Charghad River in Amravati and Madhya Pradesh State
# Maad River in Amravati and Madhya Pradesh State
o Manjra River in Bidar district of Karnataka State, Nizamabad district of Andhra Pradesh and Nanded, Latur, Osmanabad, Beed districts of Maharashtra State
+ Manhaad River in Nanded, Latur
+ Lendi River in Nanded, Latur
+ Terna River in Osmanabad, Latur
+ Tavarja River In Latur
+ Karanja River in Bidar, Latur
# Devani River in Latur, Bidar
o Kadakpurna River in Parbhani, Hingoli, Buldhana, Aurangabad districts of Maharashtra state
+ Dudhna River in Parbhani, Jalna, Aurangabad
+ Kelna River in Jalna, Aurangabad
+ Girija River in Jalna, Aurangabad
o Kapra River in Parbhani district of Maharashtra state
o Sindfana River in Beed
+ Bindusara River in Beed
o Kham River in Aurangabad
o Shivna River in Aurangabad
o Pravara River in Ahmednagar
+ Mula River, Ahmednagar in Ahmednagar
o Kadwa River in Nashik
o Darna River in Nashik district of Maharashtra state

Krishna River Basin

* Krishna River
o Tungabhadra River
+ Vedavathi River
+ Tunga River
+ Bhadra River
o Malaprabha River
o Ghataprabha River
o Bhima River
+ Sina River in Solapur, Osmanabad, Beed, Ahmednagar districts of Maharashtra state
+ Nira River in Pune, Satara
# Karha River
# Bhatghar River
+ Ghod River
# Kukadi River
+ Mula Mutha River at Pune district of Maharashtra state
# Mutha River
# Mula River, India
* Pavana River in Pune
+ Indrayani River
+ Bhama River
o Dudhganga River
o Panchganga River in Kolhapur district of Maharashtra state
o Warna River
o Yerla River
o Koyna River in Satara district of Maharashtra state

Andhra Pradesh Coastal Rivers

Rivers like vamsadhara and nagavalli are the two coastal rivers in srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh

Sharada river starts at Devarapally in visakhapatnam district and drains in to the Bay of Bengal

Penner River Basin

* Penner River

Kaveri River Basin

* Kaveri River (Kaveri)
o Kollidam (distributary)
o Amaravati River
o Arkavathy River
o Mettur Dam
o Bhavani River
o Hemavati River
o Kabini River

Tamil Nadu Coastal Rivers

* Cauvery River
* Thamirabarani River
* Palar River
* Vaigai River
* Vellar
o Vasishta Nadi
o Sweta Nadi

2.Rivers flowing into Arabian Sea

Kerala Coastal Rivers

* Chaliyar River
* Periyar River
o Chalakkudy River
* Bharathapuzha River
o Thuthapuzha
o Gayathripuzha
o Kalpathipuzha
o Kadalundipuzha River
o Kannadipuzha
o Tirur River
* Pamba River
o Achankovil River

* Payaswini
* Meenachil River
* Kodoor River
* kallada river
* Ithikkara river

Karnataka Coastal Rivers

The rivers flowing through three coastal districts of Karnataka join Arabian sea.

* Netravati River
* Sharavathi River
* Aghanashini River
* List of rivers of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts

Goa Coastal Rivers

* Zuari River
* Mandovi River

Maharashtra Coastal Rivers

* Shastri River
* Gad River
* Vashishti River
* Savitri River
* Patalganga River
* Ulhas River
o Thane Creek (distributary)
o Vasai Creek (distributary)
* Mithi River or Mahim River
* Oshiwara River
* Dahisar River
* Tansa River in Thane
* Vaitarna River
* Surya River

Tapti River Basin

Tapti River and its tributaries

* Tapti River in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh
o Gomai River in Nandurbar district of Maharashtra
o Arunavati River in Dhule district of Maharashtra
o Panzara River in Jalgaon, Dhule districts of Maharashtra
+ Kaan River in Dhule district
o Aner River in Jalgaon, Dhule districts
o Girna River in Nashik, Malegaon, Jalgaon districts
+ Titur River in Jalgaon district
o Waghur River in Jalgaon, Aurangabad districts
o Purna River in Amravati, Akola, Buldhana, Jalgaon, Navsari districts of Gujarat, Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh
+ Nalganga River in Buldhana district
+ Vaan River in Buldhana, Akola, Amravati districts of Maharashtra
+ Morna River in Akola, Washim districts
+ Katepurna River in Akola, Washim districts
+ Umaa River in Akola, Washim districts
o Sangiya River in Amravati district of Maharashtra

Narmada River Basin

* Narmada River
o Kolar River in Sehore
o Barna River in Raisen
o Hiren River
o Tawa River
o Burhner River

Mahi River Basin

* Mahi River
o Som River
+ Gomati River

Sabarmati River Basin

* Sabarmati River
o Wakal River
o Sei River

Indus River Basin

* Indus River
o Panjnad River
+ Sutlej River
# Beas River
* Parbati River (Himachal Pradesh)
+ Chenab River
# Ravi River
# Jhelum River

Rivers flowing into inner part of India

* Ghaggar River in Haryana,Rajasthan
* Musi River at Hyderabad, India


Steel Plants in India

1. Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP)-- 1959 - in Chhattisgarh - With the help of USSR - Only Producer of Steel Rails in India
2. Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP)-- Late 1950s - at Durgapur, West Bengal - With the help of UK
3. Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) --1965 - in Orissa - With the help of Germany
4. Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) -- 1972 -in Jharkhand -With the help of USSR
5. IISCO Steel Plant (ISP) --1918 - (2nd after TISCO) - in West Bengal
6. Alloy Steels Plants (ASP)-- West Bengal
7. Salem Steel Plant (SSP)-- Tamil Nadu
8. Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited (VISL)-- 1923 - Karnataka
9. Maharashtra Elektro-smelt Limited (MEL) --in Maharashtra
10. VIZAG Steel Plant - based on the design of Pohang Steel Plant, Korea - 1st Integrated in Coastal India

it is a volcano that produces the largest & most voluminous kinds of erruption on earth. the explosivity of such eruptions varies, but the volume of ejected tephra is enough to radically alter the landscape & severely affect global climate for years, with cataclysmic consequences for life. the term originally coined by the producers of the BBC popular science program, horizon. in the year 2000 it refered to three types of eruption. a large igneous province is an extensive region of basalts on a continental scale, resulting from flood basalt eruptions. when created regions often occupy several million km2 & have volumes on the order of 1 million km3. eruptions with a volcanic explosively index of 8are mega- colossal events that eject at least 1000 km3 of pyroclastic material. VEI-8 eruptions are so powerful that they form circular calderas rather than montains because the downward collapse of land at the eruption site fills empited space in the magma chamber beneath. the caldera can remain for millions of years after all volcanic activity at the site has ceased.

- lake tarpo, nothr island, new zealand - oruanui eruption - 26,500 years ago , 1170 km3

- lake toba , sumatra, indonesia - 75,000 years ago , 2800 km3

- la garita caldera, colorada, us, - 2.2 million years ago , 2500 km3

lake toba eruption plunged the earth into a volcanic winter, eradicating an estimated 60% of human population & was responsible for the sulphuric acid in the atmosphere.

it is also known as cyclonic scale. it is a horizontal scale of order of 1000 kilometers / more this corresponds to a horizontal scale typical of mid-latitudes depressions. most high & low pressure are as seen on weather maps are synoptic scale systems. the word synoptic is derived from the greek word sunoptikos meaning seen together.

Tallest,Deepest and lowest points on Earth

Tallest point of each continet

Highest Mountain in the World (and Asia)
Everest, Nepal-China: 29,035 feet / 8850 meters

Highest Mountain in Africa
Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: 19,340 feet / 5895 meters

Highest Mountain in Antarctica
Vinson Massif: 16,066 feet / 4897 meters

Highest Mountain in Australia
Kosciusko: 7310 feet / 2228 meters

Highest Mountain in Europe
Elbrus, Russia (Caucasus): 18,510 feet / 5642 meters

Highest Mountain in Western Europe
Mont Blanc, France-Italy: 15,771 feet / 4807 meters

Highest Mountain in Oceania
Puncak Jaya, New Guinea: 16,535 feet / 5040 meters

Highest Mountain in North America
McKinley (Denali), Alaska: 20,320 feet / 6194 meters

Highest Mountain in the 48 Contiguous United States
Whitney, California: 14,494 feet / 4418 meters
Highest Mountain in South America
Aconcagua, Argentina: 22,834 feet / 6960 meters

Lowest points on Land

Lowest Point in the World (and Asia)
Dead Sea shore, Israel-Jordan: 1369 feet / 417.5 meters below sea level

Lowest Point in Africa
Lake Assal, Djibouti: 512 feet / 156 meters below sea level

Lowest Point in Australia
Lake Eyre: 52 feet / 12 meters below sea level

Lowest Point in Europe
Caspian Sea shore, Russia-Iran-Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan: 92 feet / 28 meters below sea level

Lowest Point in Western Europe
Tie: Lemmefjord, Denmark and Prins Alexander Polder, Netherlands: 23 feet / 7 meters below sea level

Lowest Point in North America
Death Valley, California: 282 feet / 86 meters below sea level

Lowest Point in South America
Bahia Blanca, Argentina: 138 feet / 42 meters below sea level
Lowest Point in Antarctica
The Bentley Subglacial Trench is approximately 2540 meters (8,333 feet) below sea level but is covered with ice; if Antarctica's ice were to melt, exposing the trench, it would be covered by sea so it is a quasi-lowest point and if one ignores the reality of the ice, it is the lowest point "on land" on the earth.

Deepest points in each Ocean

Deepest Point in the World (and Pacific Ocean)
Challenger Deep, Mariana Trench, Western Pacific Ocean: 35,840 feet / 10,924 meters

Deepest Point in the Atlantic Ocean
Puerto Rico Trench: 28,374 feet / 8648 meters

Deepest Point in the Arctic Ocean
Eurasia Basin: 17,881 feet / 5450 meters

Deepest Point in the Indian Ocean
Java Trench: 23,376 feet / 7125 meters
Deepest Point in the Southern Ocean
Southern end of the South Sandwich Trench: 23,736 feet / 7235 meters

it is a deposition landform such as a spit or bar which forms a narrow piece of land between an island or offshore rock & a mainland shore; / between two islands. they usually form because the island causes wave refraction, depositing & shingle moved by longshore drift in each direction around the island where the waves meet eustatic sea level rise may also contribute to aceretion as material is pushed up with rising sea levels. 

these are rocks that have been abraded, grooved, by wind-driven sand. these gemorphic features are most typically found in & environments where there is little vegetation to interfere with eolian particle transport where there are frequently strong winds, & where there is a steady but not overwhelming supply of sand. ventifacts can be abraded to eye-catching natural sculptures. in moderately tall, isolated rock out crops, mushrooms shaped pillars of rock may form as the out crop is eroded by saltating sand grains. this occurs because , even in strong winds, sand grains can't be continuously held in the air.


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