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geography short notes -7

Names of Tropical Cyclones

North Atlantic & North Pacific - Hurricane
Western North Pacific - Typhoons
Australia - Wily Wily
Indian Ocean - Cyclones
Phillipine Islands - Baguio
Japan - Nowaki ( in olden days)
Taifu (Recent Name)
Rest of the World - Tropical Cyclone

National Parks in India

  • Bandhavgarh National Park
This park is some of the left out preserved wild pockets of Madhya Pradesh of what were once splendid forests that extended across the whole of Central India.
  • Ranthambore national Park
A nearby attraction of Sawai Madhopur, in the state of Rajasthan, Ranthambore National Park is an outstanding example of Project Tiger's efforts at conservation in the India.
  • Kaziranga National Park Assam
The land of Rhino is counted among the two major wild pockets, the only surviving habitats of this prehistoric survivor in India.
  • Kanha National Park
In the state of Madhya Pardesh,this place is called a wild hideout taken straight from the famous "Jungle Book".
  • Sundarbans National Park
Known as the largest estuarine delta in the world, this Tigerland vibrates with countless forms of colourful life.
  • Manas National Park
Assam is the state of the Great One Horned Rhino. Beside the Kaziranga there's Manas another habitat of the Rhino's, located in one of the remotest region among the foothills of Himalayas.
  • Bandipur National Park
Lies halfway down the Mysore-Ooty highway became one of the first of India's Tiger Reserves and the southernmost of the nine reserves specially established under Project Tiger.
  • Sultanpur National Park
Sultanpur national park was a stretch of marshy land that has been remodeled and converted into a water body. The park is home to a large range of birds, both resident and migratory.
  • Royal Chitwan National Park (Nepal)
Established in 1973, provides a great wildlife experience with its rich flora and fauna. Short grass makes the months of February-May the best game-viewing season, but the autumn months are perfect for visiting, with Himalayan views, and in winter months of December-January, Chitwan has quiet a pleasant climate compared to Kathmandu.
  • Royal Bardia National Park (Nepal)
Largest and most undisturbed wild area of the Terai region of the Nepal Himalayas. Simialar to Chitwan park, but with a drier climate and a more remote location, Bardia encompasses 1,000-sq-kms of riverine grassland and sal forests.
  • Rajaji National Park, Uttaranchal
Situated in the forested hills, east of Haridwar, is quiet known for its wild Elephants, which have an approximate population of 150. Because of the pleasant climate this hideout becomes a pretty good tourist destination and a perfect retreat for picnicking
  • Dudhwa National Park, U.P.
Also popular as a Tiger Reserve, this national park is located in the district of Lakhimpur, along the Indo-Nepal border. Another major attraction of this wild reserve is the Barasingha or the Swamp Deer, found in the southwest and southeast region of the park.
  • Bandipur & Nagarhole National Parks, Karnataka
Two of the most attractive national parks of Karnataka are Nagarhole and Bandipur. Even if separate entities, they are a part of a large neighboring wildlife reserve that also includes Madumalai Sanctuary of Tamil Nadu and Wynad Reserve of Kerala.
  • Bhalukpong, Arunachal
On the edge of the luxuriant forest of the Pakhui Game Sanctuary, along the Kameng river lies the village settlement of Bhalukpong, also known as the gateway to Bomdila and the Tawang Monastery.
  • Simplipal National Park, Orissa
Simplipal is counted among the earliest Project tiger reserves of India and is located in the northern-forested belt of Orissa. Beside the faunal attractions, the attractive terrain also includes numerous waterfalls.
  • Nandankanan Zoo, Orissa
A combination of a beautiful botanical garden, a zoo and a sanctuary, Nandankanan, is situated 20-km from Bhubaneshwar, and is popularly known as the "Garden of Pleasure" in Orissa. The zoo at Nandankanan is world famous for its White Tigers.
  • Gahirmatha Turtle Sanctuary, Orissa
Aqua fauna is what going to attract you to this sanctuary, the breeding center of the Giant Olive Ridley Turtles, who crossover the Pacific to come here and lay their eggs.
  • Namdhapha National Park, Arunachal
Tucked away in the northern most state of Arunachal, is the Namdhapa National Park, famous for the extremely elusive snow and the clouded Leopard. The park is also a Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger.
  • Velvadhar Blackbuck Sanctuary, Gujarat
Popularly known as the home of the Indian Black Buck, has attracted worldwide attention for the successful conservation of the fastest of the Indian Antelopes - Black Buck.
  • Wild Ass Sanctuary, Gujarat
Gujarat is an exciting place for wildlife enthusiasts, mainly because it resides some of the unique wild attractions within its numerous sanctuaries. Wild Ass sanctuary is another of Gujarat's wild surprises famous for its large wild Ass herds.
  • Dachigam National Park, J&K
Of all the sanctuaries present in the state of Jammu & Kashmir, the one at Dachigam is the best known. Once an exclusive hunting preserve of the Maharaja of Kashmir, it was declared a national park in 1951, owing to a strictly enforced conservation programme, to preserve the or Hangul population or the Kashmiri Stag.
  • The Great Himalayan National Park, H.P.
The National Park with an area of 620-sq-kms is caved out of the splendid mountain terrain of the Kullu District and has the representative area of temperate and alpine forests of Himachal. It is also one of the largest protected area of the state.
  • Dibru Saikhowa National Park, Assam
Located on the alluvial flood plains of Brahmaputra in Upper Assam neighboring Arunachal is a biosphere reserve called Dibru Saikhowa National Park Its also an orchid paradise besides being a home to numerous wild animals and birds.
  • Milroy or Pabha Sanctuary, Assam
This splendid wildlife reserve even if doesn't have many faunal varieties to offer, still it possesses the most coveted one, the Wild Water Buffalo.This sanctuary has been exclusively built for the protection of the wild water buffalo.
  • Nameri National Park, Assam
Nameri is the second Tiger reserve of Assam, situated at the foothills of eastern Himalayas. The hilly backdrop, deciduous and the river Jia Bhoroli have added a unique natural charm to it.
  • Pin Valley National Park, H.P.
Tucked in between the snow laden higher reaches and scree slopes covered with scanty tufted vegetation, Pin Valley National Park forms the natural habitat of a number of endangered animals including Himalayan Ibex, Snow Leopard, Bharal, Wooly Hare, Tibetan Wolf, and Snow Cock.
  • Hemis High Altitude National Park, J&K
Hemis is a high altitude protected area that was created in the year 1981, in the eastern part of the cold desert of Ladakh, for the conservation and protection of its unique flora and fauna.


Nebraska Sand Hills!


sand hill is a region of mixed grass prairie in north-central Nebraska, covering just over 1 quarter of the state. the region is variously defined by different organizations . so its size is indicated as 19,000 mi2 (50,700 km2) or 23,600 mi2 (61,100 km2). dunes in sand hills may exceed 330 feet (100m) in height. the average elevation of the sand hills region gradually increases from about 1500 feet 550m in the eat to about 360 feet 1100m in the west. the sand hill sit top the massive ogallala aquifer & marshes & shallow lakes both temporary & permanent--are common in low-lying parts of the sand hills. the eastern & central sections of the regions are drained by tributaries of the long river & the niobrara river . the worldwide fund for nature designated the sand hills as an ecoregion, distinct from other grasslands of the great plains. as much as 85% of the sand hills ecoregion is intact naural habitat, the highest level in the great plains. the reason is primarily due to lack of agriculture,. the plant-anchored dunes of the sand hills were formed at the most recent ice age by wind-blown particles originating from regions to the north & west of Nebraska.
NorthWest Passage Opens

the north-west passage - a long-sought short cut between Europe & Asia that has been historically impassable-is opening up due to raising global temperature. this area covered by sea ice in the Arctic region has now shrunk to its lowest level.

- the McClure Strait, the most direct route of the Northwest Passage, has been fully open since early August 2007. there has been a reduction of the ice cover over the last 10 years of about 1,00,000 per year on average so drop of 1 million in just one year is extreme.

- these are highly vulnerable to raising temperatures & predicted arctic would be virtually ice free by the summer 2070.

it is the exposed summit of a ridge , mountain / peak not covered with ice snow within an icefield or glacier. the term is typically used in areas where a permanent ice sheet is present . nunatak are generally angular & jagged because of freeze. than weathering, & can be seen to contrast strongly with the softer contours of the glacially eroded land below if the glacier retreats. the word nunatak is of grenlandic origin meaning a hill . it has been used in western european languages since 1870s.


- manasarovar = indus & tsangpo

- lahul = chenab

- rohtang = beas

- harike = sutlej & beas

- pilibbit = gomti

- amarkantak = narmada & sone

- betul = tapi

- annasgar = luni

- pharsiya = mahanadi

- trimbak = godavari

- balaghat = manjra

- kalahandi = indravati

- mahabaleshwar = krishna

- medak = musi

- brahmagiri = kaveri

- devprayag = bhagirathi & alaknanda.

- betul = wardha  

Pipeline Projects!

  1. Naharkatia-Nunmati-Barauni pipeline
  2. Mumabi high-Mumbai-Ankleshwar-Kayoli pipeline
  3. Salaya-Koyali-Mathura
  4. Hajira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur Gas pipeline
  5. JAmnagar-Loni LPG pipeline
  6. Kalol-Sabarmati Crude pipeline
  7. Nawgam-Kalol-Koyali Crude pipeline
  8. The Cambay-Dhiwaran Gas pipeline
  9. The Anklaeshwar-Vadodara, associated Gas pipeline
  10. The Koyali-Ahmedabad Products pipeline
  11. Haldia-Kolkata pipeline
  12. Pune-Mumbai-Manmad pipeline
  1. Dahej-Vijaipur pipeline
  2. North-South Gujarat pipeline
  3. Dahej-Hazira-Uran pipeline
  4. Kandla-Bhatinda pipeline
  5. Kochi-Mangalore-Bengalooru pipeline
  6. Vishakhapatanam-Secunderabad pipeline
  7. Kanpur-Bina pipeline
  8. Mangalore-Chennai pipeline
  9. Vijayawada-Vishakhapatanam pipeline
  10. Haldia-Budge Budge pipeline


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