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geography short notes -5

International Lines:


1. Durand Line - Afghan and Pak

2. Hindenburg Line - Germany and Poland(After I World War)

3. Oder-Neisse Line - Germany and Poland

4. Maginot Line - France and Germany

5. Mac-Mohan Line - India and China

6. Radcliffe Line - India and Pakistan

7. 16th Parallel Line - Namibia and Angola

8. 17th Parallel Line - North and South Vietnam

9. 38th Parallel Line - North and South Korea

10. 49th Parallel Line - USA and Canada

Important River Valley Projects

1 Bhakra Nangal Project On Sutlaj in Punjab. Highest in India. Ht 226 m. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake.
2 Mandi Project On Beas in HP
3 Chambal Valley Project On Chambal in MP & Rajasthan. 3 dams are there: Gandhi Sagar Dam, Rana Pratap
Sagar Dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam.
4 Damodar Valley Project On Damodar in Bihar. Based on Tennessee Valley Project, USA.
5 Hirakud Project On Mahanadi in Orissa. World's longest dam: 4801m
6 Rihand Project On Son in Mirzapur, Reservoir is called Govind Vallabh Pant reservoir.
7 Kosi Project On Kosi in N.Bihar.
8 Mayurkashi Project On Mayrukashi in WB.
9 Kakrapara Project On Tapi in Gujarat.
10 Nizamsagar Project On Manjra in AP.
11 Nagarjuna Sagar Project Krishna in AP
12 Tungabhadra Project On Tungabhadra in AP & Karnataka
13 Shivasamudram Project On Cauvery in Karnataka. It is the oldest river valley project of India.
14 Tata Hydel Scheme On Bhima in Maharashtra
15 Sharavathi Hydel Project On Jog Falls in Karnataka
16 Kundah & Periyar Project In TN
17 Farakka Project On Ganga in WB. Apart from power and irrigation it helps to remove silt for easy navigation.
18 Ukai Project On Tapti in Gujarat
19 Mahi Project On Mahi in Gujarat
20 Salal Project On Chenab in J & K
21 Mata Tila Multipurpose Project On Betwa in UP & MP
22 Thein Project On Ravi, Punjab
23 Pong Dam On Beas, Punjab
24 Tehri Project On Bhgirathi, Uttaranchal
25 Sardar Sarovar Project On Narmada, Gujarat/MP.


- Afghanistan = 80 = 0.52

- Bhutan = 587 = 3.86

- Myanmar = 1458 = 9.59

- Nepal = 1752 = 11.53

- Pakistan = 3310 = 21.78

- China = 3917 = 25.77

- Bangladesh = 4096 = 26.95



- Diu = fishing island, continuous beach structure

- salsette = group of seven islands forms present mumbai

- Bassein = old deposits

- Lakshadweep = coral islands

- Aminidiv = group of islands north of 11th parallel part of lakshadweep

- Cannanore = group of islands south of 11th parallel part of lakshadweep

- Minicoy = corraline islands

- Kavarathi = sile of desalinisation & OTEC plant

- Kacchativa = fishing island recently leased to srilanka

- Pamban = remnants of land link now submerged

- Sriharikota = spit island

- Wellington = naval station in kerala

- New Moore = deltic island & disputed site between india & bangladesh

- N.Andaman = submerged peaks of ridges continuous with arakan yoma

- M.Andaman = submerged peaks of ridges continuous with arakan yoma

- L.Andaman = submerged peaks of ridges continuous with arakan yoma

- Berra island = only active volcano of india

- Narcondum = unsubmerted islands of andaman.

Indian Railway zones--HeadQuarters and Divisions

Indian Railway zones and Headquartes
1. Northern Railway--Delhi
2. North Eastern Railway--Gorakhpur
3. Northeast Frontier Railway--Maligaon(Guwahati)
4. Eastern Railway--Kolkata
5. South Eastern Railway--Kolkata
6. South Central Railway--Secunderabad
7. Southern Railway--chennai
8. Central Railway--Mumbai November
9. Western Railway--Mumbai November
10. South Western Railway--Hubli
11. North Western Railway--jaipur
12. West Central Railway--jabalpur
13. North Central Railway--Allahabad
14. South East Central Railway--Bilaspur
15. East Coast Railway--Bhubaneswar
16. East Central Railway--Hajipur
17. Konkan Railwayâ€*--Navi Mumbai

Indian Railways and Divisions
1.Northern Railway-- Delhi, Ambala, Firozpur, Lucknow, Moradabad
2.North Eastern Railway-- Izzatnagar, Lucknow, Varanasi
3.Northeast Frontier Railway-- Alipurduar, Katihar, Lumding, Rangia, Tinsukia
4.Eastern Railway-- Howrah, Sealdah, Asansol, Malda
5.South Eastern Railway-- Adra, Chakradharpur, Kharagpur, Ranchi
6.South Central Railway-- Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Guntakal, Guntur, Nanded, Vijayawada
7.Southern Railway-- Chennai, Madurai, Palghat, Tiruchchirapalli, Trivandrum, Salem
8.Central Railway-- Mumbai, Bhusawal, Pune, Solapur, Nagpur
9.Western Railway-- Mumbai Central, Baroda, Ratlam, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Bhavnagar
10.South Western Railway-- Hubli, Bangalore, Mysore
11.North Western Railway-- Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur
12.West Central Railway-- Jabalpur, Bhopal, Kota
13.North Central Railway-- Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi
14.South East Central Railway-- Bilaspur, Raipur, Nagpur
15.East Coast Railway-- Khurda Road, Sambalpur, Visakhapatnam
16.East Central Railway-- Danapur, Dhanbad, Mughalsarai, Samastipur, Sonpur


it is also known as monadrock. it is an isolated hill, knob, ridge that rises abruptly from a gently sloping or vertically level surrounding plain. in southern & southern-central Africa, this monadrock is an originally native american term for an isolated hill or lone mountain. the name is derived from the Abenaki language, from either memonadenak means smooth mountain. the word insulburg is german for "island mountain".


There are 12 international airports in India.

1. Airport Name: Amritsar International Airport
City: Amritsar
State: Punjab
2. Airport Name: Indira Gandhi International Airport
New Delhi

3. Lokpriya Gopinath Bordolio International Airport

4. Airport Name: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport
City: Ahmedabad
State: Gujarat

5. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport

6. Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport

7. Airport Name: Hyderabad Airport
City: Hyderabad
State: Andhra Pradesh
Passenger Terminals International: Rajiv Gandhi Terminal Domestic: N. T. Rama Rao Terminal

8. Airport Name: Goa Airport
City: Vasco da Gama
State: Goa
9. Airport Name: Chennai International Airport

10.Airport Name: Bangalore International Airport
City: Bangalore
State: Karnataka
Physical Location: Southern India, South-East of the State of Karnataka

11.Airport Name Cochin International Airport
City: Cochin
State: Kerala

12.Airport Name Trivandrum International Airport
City: Thiruvananathapuram
State: Kerala
Physical Location: South Kerala


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