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geography short notes -4

  1. Blue Mountains = Nilgiri Hills
  2. Bengal's Sorrow = Damodar river
  3. City of Palaces = Kolkota
  4. China's Sorrow = Hwang Ho
  5. City of Seven Hills = Rome
  6. City of Skyscrapers = New York
  7. Cockpit of Europe = Belgium
  8. Dark Continent = Africa
  9. Empire city = New York
  10. Emerald Island = Ireland
  11. Gift of Nile = Egypt
  12. Gateway of India = Bombay
  13. Granite city = Aberdeen ( Scotland )
  14. Holy land = Jerusaleum
  15. Island of Cloves = Zanzibar
  16. Land of Midnight Sun = Norway
  17. Land of Rising Sun = Japan
  18. Land of Thousand Lakes = Finland
  19. Land of Golden Pagoda = Burma
  20. Land of Morning Calm = Korea
  21. Land of Maple Leaf = Canada
  22. Land of Thousand Elephants = Laos
  23. Land of White Elephants = Thailand
  24. Land of Five Rivers = Punjab
  25. Land of Thunderbolt = Bhutan
  26. PlayGround of Europe = Switzerland
  27. Rose Pink City = Jaipur
  28. Roof of World = The Pamirs in Central Asia
  29. Sugar Bowl of World = Cuba
  30. Yellow River = Hawang-Ho ( China )


Geysers were named after a famous "the Great Geysir" of Iceland. That is located around the northwest area of Mt. Hekla, which is also an active volcano in the south central part of the island. That means "roarer" in Icelandic language.

It is a type of hot spring that errupts periodically, ejecting a column of hot water & stream into the air. the name geyser comes from geysir, the name of an errupting spring at Iceland. the word comes from Iceland means "to gush". the formation of geysers require a favourable hydrogeology which exists in only a few places on earth, so they are fairely ran phenomena. about 1000 exist worldwide, half of them is in Yellowstone National Park, US. geyser erruptive may change / cease due to ongoing mineral deposition with in the geyser as plumbing, exchange of functions with near by hot springs, earthquakes influence. geyser activity all hot spring activity is caused by surface water gradually seeping down through the ground until it meets rock heated by magma. geyser differ from non-eeruptive hot springs in their subterranean structure.

The geysers are made by a forceful eruption of water to go to heights of 100 to 200 feet, and the record holding is around 1500 feet. When the water comes to blow off steam, which is responsible for all that roaring. The vigor of these eruptions is what we want to understand more of. Geysers are always around places like hot springs, but then they are a rather unusual phenomenon.



errupt from pools of water, typically in a series of intense, even violent, burts.


these geysers which errupt from cones of siliceous sinter, usually in steady jets that last anywhere from few seconds to several minutes.

most geysers form in places where there is volcanic rhyolite rock which dissolves in hot water & forms mineral deposite called silicons sinter. many geyser have been destroyed by people throwing litter & debris into them. others have ceased to errupt due to the dewatering by geothermal power plants. the specific colours of geysers derices from the fact that despite the apparently harsh condition, life is often found in them in the form of thermophilic prokaryotes. in the 1960s , when the research of biology of geyser first appeared, scientists were generally convinced that no life can survive above around 73 degree c (163 degree F). the upper limit for the survival of eyanobacteria , as the structure of key cellular proteins & DNA would be destroyed.

Other Physical Nature

In the Earth where there is an opening that would contain superheated water that periodically erupts in a shower of water and of steam. They are found around places where there are heated rocks close to the surface. Iceland is located on the Mid Atlantic ridge noted for its basic activities. Old Faithful is known to be the most famous geyser in Yellowstone National Park, Old Faithful is not the largest geyser in Yellowstone, but is known to be the most frequent on its eruptions on time periods. These eruptions do erupt in about 45 to 110 minutes, with an average of 76 minutes less predictable. However most geysers are always irregular, though Old Faithful ejects 14,000 to 32,000 liters of boiling water to heights of aver 30 to 55 m in each eruption. Approximately 700 geysers, Yellowstone has 500 of all the geysers in the world. Once the other geysers in the Norris Geysers the north Geysers Basin did erupt to 12 to 15 m every 60 seconds.


it is a piece of rock that deviates from the size & type of rock native to the area in which it rests; the name "erratic" is based on the errant location of these boulders. these rocks were carried to their current location by glacial ice, over hundred's of kilometers. Erratics can range in size from pebbles to large boulders such as Big rock which is 16,500 ton is in Alberia.

How can ozone be both good and bad?

The thing that determines whether ozone is good or bad is its location.

Ozone is "good" when it is in the stratosphere. The stratosphere is a layer of the atmosphere starting at the level of about 6 miles (about 10 kilometers) above sea level. The stratosphere naturally contains about six parts per million of ozone, and this ozone is very beneficial because it absorbs UV radiation and prevents it from reaching us.
Ozone is "bad" when it is at ground level. Ozone is a very reactive gas that is hard on lung tissue. It also damages plants and buildings. Any ozone at ground level is a problem. Unfortunately, chemicals in car exhaust and chemicals produced by some industries react with light to produce lots of ozone at ground level. In cities, the ozone level can rise to a point where it becomes hazardous to our health. That's when we hear about an ozone warning on the news.



Name of the glacier = Length(km) = Location
  • siachen = 75 = nubra
  • fedchenko = 74 = south-western pamir
  • hispar = 62 = tributary of hunza river
  • biafo = 59 = braldoh valley
  • batura = 58 = hunza
  • baltoro = 58 = braldoh valley
  • chogo lungma = 50 = rakaposhi range
  • khurdopla = 47 = shingshal valley
  • lolofond = 40 = west of siachen
  • yarkand rimo = 40 = shyok valley
  • mohil yaz = 32 = shingshal valley
  • yazhit = 31 = shingshal valley
  • godwin austen = 30 = K2
  • ching kumdon = 21 = shyok
  • gasherbrum = 16 = gasherbrum


Name of the glacier = Length(km) = Location
  • sonapani = 15 = chandra valley of lahul & spiti
  • bara shigri = 10-20 = chandra valley
  • rakhiot = 15 = nanga parbat
  • gangri = 13 = nun kun massif
  • chungphar = 13 = nanga parbat


Name of the glacier = Length(km) = Location
  • gangotri = 30 = source of the ganga
  • milam = 20 = gori ganga
  • bhagirath kharak = 18 = near badrinath
  • mana = 18 = mana valley north of the gangotri
  • satopanch = 16 = near badrinath


Name of the glacier = Length(km) = Location
  • yepokangara = 13.5 = gosainthan
  • lidanda = 11 = manasulu
  • chhuling = 11 = manasulu
  • mayondi = 11 = dhaulagiri himal


Name of the glacier = Length(km) = Location
  • rongbuk = 52 = northern (tibetan) side of the mount everest
  • zemu = 25 = zemu valley (from headwaters of the tists river)
  • kanchenjunga = 21 = north of kanchenjunga, covers head of kanchen river
  • khumbu = 20 = south of Mt.everest
  • kangshung = 19 = east of Mt.everest
  • tolam bau = 19 = south-west of barunste peak
  • barun = 15 = north-east of baruntse peak
  • rambang = 10 = kanchanjunga


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