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geography short notes -2

this is the scale used for measuring & recording the strength of the wind. it is based on estomated velocity at 10 m (33feet) above the ground. it was devised by admiral sir beaufort, in 1805.


  • calm = 0 = chimmney smoke rises vertically
  • light air = 1.5-5 = smoke drifts gently
  • light breeze = 6-12 = leaves rustle, wind felt on face.
  • gentle breeze = 13-20 = leaves & twigs on trees move.
  • moderate breeze = 21-29 = dust & paper raised from ground
  • fresh breeze = 30-39 = small trees start to sway.
  • strong breeze = 40-50 = large braches move
  • moderate gale = 51-61 = whole trees sway.
  • fresh gale = 62-75 = twigs are broken off trees
  • strong gale = 76-87 = slight structural damage to buildings
  • whole gale = 88-102 = trees are uprooted & houses damaged.
  • storm = 103-121 = widespread damage occurs
  • hurricane = above 121 = widespread devastation occurs.

Birds in India

Indian bittern is a bird belonging to the Ardeidae family of herons. Almost all the subspecies of Bitterns have a short neck and tend to be more secretive than the other members of the family. Indian Bittern birds form a monophyletic subfamily in the heron family of Botaurinae.

Crested Serpent Eagle
Indian Crested Serpent Eagle, a member of Accipitridae family, is scientifically known as Spilornis cheela. It is a specialist reptile eater, which mainly hunts snakes and lizards.

Grey Francolin
Grey Francolin, also known as Grey Partridge, is a resident bird of the Indian subcontinent. The species was introduced for the first time in the Andaman Islands. Since then, it has beautifully adapted itself to the country as well as its climate.

Greylag Goose
Greylag goose, Anser anser, is one of the Old World species of birds and was known in the pre-Linnean times as Wild Goose. It has ancestral relations with the domesticated geese of Europe and North America. Gray Lag Goose is a very frequent winter visitor to the north regions of the Indian subcontinent.

Great Indian Hornbill

Greater Indian Hornbill is considered to be the largest member of the hornbill family. Scientifically known as Buceros bicornis, it is usually found inhabiting the forests of Indian subcontinent, the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra, Indonesia. The average lifespan of the Great Pied Hornbill of India exceeds 35 years and may go upto 50 years in captivity.

Indian heron belongs is a member of the large wading bird family, known as Ardeidae. It is found mostly inhabiting the tropical and sub tropical areas. However, Indian herons can also be seen in temperate areas. There is one major characteristic that distinguishes herons from the other birds.

Blue peacock is regarded as one of the most beautiful birds throughout the world. It is also the National Bird of the Indian subcontinent. Peacock is the name given to a male peafowl, while the female is known as Peahen. Scientifically known as Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), the Peafowl of India is a swan-sized bird, with a long and slender neck.

Jungle Bush Quail
Jungle bush quail bird is one of the species of quails found in South Asia. The bird is usually seen in small coveys and is quite shy by nature. One can get a glimpse of the Jungle bush quails of India mainly when they burst out into flight from under the vegetation.


Indian stork is one of the 17 different species of storks found throughout the world. The only continent where storks are not found is that of Antarctica. The natural habitat of the storks comprises of Indian fields, savannas and marshes.

Dams and Reservoirs in Indian States

1.Andhra Pradesh

* Nagarjuna Sagar Dam
* Srisailam Project
* Srisailam Dam
* Nizam Sagar
* Telugu Ganga
* Polavaram dam
* Nijam Sagar Reservoir
* Osman Sagar
* Sriram Sagar Reservoir
* Lower Maneru Reservoir
* Himayath Sagar Reservoir
* Dindi Reservoir
* Somasila Reservoir
* Gandipalem Reservoir
* Dowleswaram Barrage
* prakasam barrage
* Tatipudi Reservoir
* Ichampalli
* Pulichintala
* Ellammpalli
* Singur Dam
* Dummagudem
* NagarjunaSagar TailPond
* Sunkesula
* Musi Reservoir


* Sardar Sarovar Project on Narmada river
* Ukai Dam near Surat

3.Himachal Pradesh

* Bhakra Dam on Sutlej river, near Nangal
* Gobind Sagar
* Maharana Pratap Sagar
* Pong Dam Reservoir on Beas River, near Talwara.
* Pandoh Dam on Beas River, near Mandi.
* Chamera Dam on Ravi River near Chamba.
* Nathpa Dam on Sutlej River near Rampur.


* Krishna Raja Sagara Dam built by the then Maharaja of the
erstwhile Mysore Kingdom, Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Chief Architect:
Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, across Cauvery River.
* Alamatti Dam
* Basava Sagara Dam
* Linganamakki dam
* Supa Dam
* Kodasalli Dam
* Kadra Dam
* Tunga Bhadra Dam
* Kabini Reservoir
* Harangi Dam
* Narayanpur Dam downstream of Alamatti Dam
* Garura Dam Krishna River
* Hemavathi Reservoir (Gorur Dam)


* Banasura Sagar Dam
* Chalakkudy Dam
* Idukki Dam
* Kundaly dam in Munnar
* Malampuzha Dam
* Mattupetty Dam
* Parambikulam Dam
* Pothundi Dam
* Walayar Dam
* Idukki arch dam in idukki
* Neyyar Dam

6.Madhya Pradesh

* Bansagar
* Bargi Dam
* Barna Dam
* Gandhi Sagar dam
* Indirasagar
* Narmada Dam Project
* Rajghat
* Tawa Reservoir


* Koyna Dam - River Koyna
* Jaikwadi
* Ujani -River Bhima
* Mulshi Dam - River Mula
* Khadakwasla - River Mutha
* Kolkewadi Dam
* Panshet - River Mutha
* Radhanagari
* Bhatsa
* Tansa
* Vaitarna
* Pawna - River Pawna
* Bhandardara
* Gangapur Dam, Nashik
* Ozarkhed Dam, Nashik
* Karanjwan Dam
* Nandur Madhmeshwar Dam
* Yeldari on Purna River Near Parbhani
* Siddheshwar on Purna River Near Parbhani
* Manar On River Manar Near Nanded
* Girna On River Girna
* Chaskaman On River Bhima Near Rajgurunagar


* Umiam Lake


* Balimela Reservoir
* Hirakud Dam on Mahanadi River near Sambalpur
* Balimela Reservoir
* Jalaput on Machkund River near Jaypore, Koraput District

10.Tamil Nadu

* Aliyar Reservoir
* Amaravathi Reservoir
* Anaikuttam Reservoir
* Anainaduvu Reservoir
* Bhavanisagar Reservoir
* Chittar Reservoir
* Chittar Reservoir-1
* Chittar Reservoir-2
* Gatana Reservoir
* Golwarpatti Reservoir
* Gomukhinadhi Reservoir
* Gundar Reservoir
* Gunderippalam Reservoir
* Kariakoil Reservoir
* Karupppanadhi Reservoir
* Kelavarapalli Reservoir
* Kesarigulihalla Reservoir
* Kodaganar Reservoir
* Kovilar Reservoir
* Krishnagiri Reservoir
* Kullursandai Reservoir
* Kutharaiyar Reservoir
* Lower Nirar Reservoir
* Manimukthanadhi Reservoir
* Manimuthar Reservoir
* Manjalar Reservoir
* Marudhanadhi Reservoir
* Mettur Dam
* Nagavathi Reservoir
* Noyyal Oarathuppalayam
* Palar Porandalar Reservoir
* Pambar Reservoir
* Parambikulam Reservoir
* Parappalar Reservoir
* Pechiparai Reservoir
* Periyar Reservoir (Pilavukkal Project)
* Periyar Reservoir
* Perumpallam Reservoir
* Perunchani Reservoir
* Peruvaripallam
* Ponnaniar Reservoir
* Ramanadhi Reservoir
* Sathanur Reservoir
* Sholayar Reservoir
* Siddhamalli Reservoir
* Soolagiri chinnar Reservoir
* Stanley Reservoir
* Thambalahalli Reservoir
* Thirumurthi Reservoir
* Thoppaiyar Reservoir
* Thunakadavu Reservoir
* Uppar Reservoir
* Upper Nirar Wier
* Vaigai Dam
* Vaigai Reservoir
* Vaniyar Reservoir
* Varadamanadhi Reservoir
* Varattupallam Reservoir
* Vattamalaikarai Odai Reservoir
* Vembakottai Reservoir
* Vidur Reservoir
* Willingdon Reservoir

11.Uttar Pradesh

* Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar on Rihand River in Sonbhadra
* Matatila Dam on Betwa River in Lalitpur
* Parichha Dam on Betwa River in Parichha (Jhansi District).


* Tehri dam

13.West Bengal

* Maithon Dam
* Panchet Dam


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