### general science#12

#### Distribution of elements on the surface of the earth

 Element Distribution Element Distribution Oxygen 49.85% Silicon 26.03% Aluminium 7.28% Calcium 3.18% Sodium 2.33% Potassium 2.23% Magnesium 2.11% Hydrogen 0.97% Titanium 0.41% Chlorine 0.20% Carbon 0.19% Others 1.00%

#### Metals and their ores

 Substance Ore Substance Ore Calcium Limestone, marble, chalk Mercury Cinnabar Copper Copper pyrites, Cuprite Potassium Carnelite, Saltpetre Cement Limestone and clay Sodium Rock salt, Cryolite Glass Silica and lime stone Thorium Monozite Iodine Sea weeds Titanium Rutile, limenite Iron Hematite, Magnatite, Iron pyrites Uranium Pitchblende Gold Aurite Silver Argentite

#### Metals and their alloys

 Alloy Component Brass Copper, Zinc Bronze Copper, Tin, Zinc Gun metal Copper, Tin, Zinc Duralmin Aluminium, Copper,Magnesium, Manganese Solder Aluminium, Lead, Tin Pewter Lead, Tin

## Notes

Speed is the rate of change of distance
$speed = \frac{distance}{time}$
Velocity is the rate of change of displacement. It signifies both the speed and the direction of movement of an object.
$velocity = \frac{displacement}{time}$
Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.
$acceleration = \frac{velocity}{time}$
Acceleration due to gravity is the acceleration experienced by an object as it falls freely towards the ground. It is constant throughout the surface of the earth.
$g= 9.8 \frac{m}{s^2}$
Momentum is a measure of the quantity of motion possessed by a body.
$momentum = mass * velocity$
Equations of motion
Let an object be moving for time t at an acceleration a resulting in a displacement s. If the initial velocity of the object is u and the final velocity v, the following equations hold true
$v=u + at$
$s = ut + \frac{at^2}{2}$
$v^2 - u^2 = 2as$
Newton’s laws of motion
First law: A body continues in its state of rest or uniform motion unless compelled to change by an unbalanced force
Second law: A body of mass m under an acceleration a experiences a force F given by $F = ma$
Third law: Whenever a body A exerts a force F on another body B, the second body B exerts force -F on A.

## Questions

1. The universal law of motion was propounded by

1. Kepler
2. Galileo
3. Newton
4. Copernicus
2. The gravitational force with which the Sun attracts the Earth is

1. less than the force with which the Earth attracts the Sun
2. the same as the force with which the Earth attracts the Sun
3. more than the force with which the Earth attracts the Sun
4. constant throughout the year
3. The mass of a body is different from its weight.

1. Mass is variable whereas the weight is constant
2. Mass varies very little at different places whereas weight varies significantly
3. Mass is constant but weight increases from the pole to the equator
4. mass is a measure of quantity of matter whereas weight is a force
4. The weight of a body is

1. same everywhere on the surface of the earth
2. maximum at the poles
3. maximum at the equator
4. more on hills than in plains
5. If a body is taken from the Earth to the Moon,

1. its mass will be different but weight will still be the same
2. both mass and weight will be different
3. mass will be the same but weight will be different
4. mass and weight will both remain unchanged

### UNIT 13 FEATURES OF 73rd AND 74th CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT

Structure

13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.9 Activities

13.0 LEARNING OUTCOME

After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.

13.1 INTRODUCTION

The revitalization of Pancha…

### General Studies :: Indian Polity #1

Constitutional evolution under British ruleRegulating Act 1773beginning of British parliamentary control over the East India Companysubordination of the presidencies of Bombay and Madras to BengalGovernor of Bengal made Governal-Generalcouncil of Governor-General establishedSupreme Court established in CalcuttaPitt’s India Act 1784commercial and political activities of the Company separatedestablished a board of control over the CompanyCharter Act 1813trade monopoly of the Company abolishedmissionaries allowed to preach in IndiaCharter Act 1833Governor-General of Bengal becomes Governor-General of Indiafirst Governor-General Lord William Bentickends commercial activities of the CompanyCharter Act 1853legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s council separatedopen competition for Indian Civil Services establishedIndian Council Act 1861establishes legislative councils at the centre, presidencies and provincesGovernor-General’s executive council to have Indians as non…

### UNIT 1 CONCEPT, EVOLUTION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF DEMOCRATIC DECENTRALISATION

Structure

1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.9 Activities

1.0 LEARNING OUTCOME

After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.

1.1 INTRODUCTION

The dawn of 21st century is marked by decentralized governance both as a strategy and philosophy of brining about reforms and changes in democracies. These changes led to such virtues of transparency, responsiveness and accountability and ensures good governance. Today decentralization and democracy are the most significant themes in the development discourse. In the present contex…