Skip to main content

What is a Papal Bull?

 Papal Bull is the term used for a special kind of letters patent or charter issued by a Pope and named for the seal. A bulla is a seal. Papal Bull was named after the bulla that was appended to the end in order to authenticate it. They have been used by Pope for various kinds of communications since 6th century but after 15th century they are mostly used in formal and solemn of occasions. It is issued by Vatican Chancery in the name of the Pope.

Who are natural persons and legal persons?

 A natural person may be defined as a normal human being. The first necessary for a normal human being is to be a legal person is that he / she must be recognized as possessing sufficient status to enable him or her to possess rights and duties. The individual should be born alive and should posses human characteristics. A child in the mother's womb is by legal fiction as already born. (A legal fiction is a fact or situation assumed or created by courts). If he/ she is born alive, will have a legal status. Although law normally takes cognizance of living human beings yet makes exceptions in case of infant in ventre sa mere which refers to a fetus in uterus. A child which is still "en ventre sa mere" is accepted to be a minor, provided it is subsequently born alive.


What is the difference between Proprietary Rights and Personal Rights?

Proprietary Rights are rights in relation to one's own property, which consists of things, assets, belonging in possession and ownership rights of a person or entity. The personal rights are relating to the body of the concerned person which may affect his /her character, liberty, and status in the society.

"Who am I, a mere prime minister, before the Queen of Song? "Who said this for whom?

 It was quoted by Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru for Bharat Ratna renowned Carnatic vocalist M. S. Subbulakshmi. M. S. Subbulakshmi was the first musician ever to be awarded the Bharat Ratna in 1998. She was called Tapaswini by Lata Mangeshkar and Suswaralakshmi by Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan. Sarojini Naidu called her "Nightingale of India". Venkateswara Suprabhatam , the musical hymns to awaken Lord Balaji early in the morning are today played in almost all parts of India every morning.

Which European Country's Flag is called "The Saltire"?

National Flag of Scotland is called the Saltire and is shows a X shaped cross. The other name of this Flag is Saint Andrew's Cross. The origin of the design of the Flag goes back to the Christian apostle and martyr Saint Andrew who is the patron saint of Scotland and was crucified on an X-shaped cross at Patras.  

In which part of the world is Found Dik Dik?

Dik Dik is the name of a small antelope belonging to Genus Madoqua. It is found in of parts of East Africa, Angola and Namibia. The name of the Dik Dik is derived from the alarm calls made by female of the antelopes of this species.

What is the administrative capital of South Africa?

South Africa has 3 capital Cities- Pretoria, Cape Town and Bloemfontein.
Pretoria, located in Gauteng Province of South Africa is the administrative and de facto National Capital. Cape Town serves as the legislative capital of South Africa while Bloemfontein serves as judicial capital.
Original name of Pretoria is Pretoria Philadelphia which means Pretoria of brotherly love.
Bloemfontein is popularly and poetically known as "the city of roses", owing to the abundance of these flowers and the annual rose festival held there.
Cape town was originally developed by the Dutch East India Company as a supply station for Dutch ships sailing to Eastern Africa, India, and the Far East.

In which country Kiwi the first modern shoe polish was invented in 1906?
Kiwi brand was the first shoe polish which resembles the modern varieties of shoe polishes as it is aimed primarily at inducing shine. It was first manufactured in a very small factory in Melbourne Australia by two Scottish expatriates William Ramsay and Hamilton. The brand was named as Kiwi which is the national bird of New Zealand & Ramsay's wife was a native of Oamaru, New Zealand. After success in Australia Kiwi expanded in other countries and adopted by both the British and American armies in World War I.

Today Kiwi is sold in 180 countries and dominated the market share in UK & USA. Currently it is owned by the Sara Lee Corporation which bought it in 1984.

What is Chena Cultivation?

 Chena cultivation or shifting agriculture is the most primitive type of agriculture known to man from the dawn of civilization, practiced in Sri Lanka & some other Asian countries. It does not make use of the same piece of land (unlike where paddy is grown) and goes on rotation of crops. The 'Chena' cultivator cuts down, at regular intervals, the trees of a small jungle land and set fire to the woody growths as far as possible, to begin cultivation. This virgin land is most suitable for cultivation in view of its rich soil.

It involves the clearing of either primeval or second growth of jungle land every year for cultivation of dry-land products such as 'tala', 'amu', 'kurakkan', 'meneri', 'badairingu', 'thana', 'mung', 'bajiri' and varieties of vegetables, which have a ready market as subsidiary crops.

'Chena' cultivation is characterized by a lack of tillage, the soil is hardly disturbed, as no plough turns it. 

 It is Kent. Kent is known as the "Garden of England" because of its abundance of orchards and hop gardens.The other counties like North Yorkshire have tried to claim this title in recent past.


Popular posts from this blog



13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


The revitalization of Pancha…

Q. What is the meaning of the terms like ‘Pardon’, ‘Reprieve’, ‘Respite’, ‘Remission’ and ‘Commutation’ with respect to the power of the President to grant pardon to convicted persons?

Ans. In terms of their scope and effect, these terms have specific connotations. The effect of Pardon is to abolish punishment and to absolve the convict of all charges. If Pardon is granted, it is assured as if the convict has not committed any crime. The convict will not face any disabilities due to the allegations and charges made against him. ‘Remission’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment. For example, the imprisonment for 20 years may be reduced to the imprisonment for 10 years. ‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. For example, punishment to death may be changed to life imprisonment. ‘Respite’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. For example, the punishment to death awarded to a pregnant woman, may be changed to simple life imprisonment. Respite means delay in execution of punishment especially that of death, in order to …

General Studies :: Indian Polity #1

Constitutional evolution under British ruleRegulating Act 1773beginning of British parliamentary control over the East India Companysubordination of the presidencies of Bombay and Madras to BengalGovernor of Bengal made Governal-Generalcouncil of Governor-General establishedSupreme Court established in CalcuttaPitt’s India Act 1784commercial and political activities of the Company separatedestablished a board of control over the CompanyCharter Act 1813trade monopoly of the Company abolishedmissionaries allowed to preach in IndiaCharter Act 1833Governor-General of Bengal becomes Governor-General of Indiafirst Governor-General Lord William Bentickends commercial activities of the CompanyCharter Act 1853legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s council separatedopen competition for Indian Civil Services establishedIndian Council Act 1861establishes legislative councils at the centre, presidencies and provincesGovernor-General’s executive council to have Indians as non…