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Question-answer 9

  • The National Party of India which celebrated recently its 125th foundation day is: Indian National congress
    The Indian national congress (INC) was founded on December 28, 1885 by A.O.Hume.
  • The Japanese Prime minister who recently visited India is: Yukio Hatoyama
    Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama arrived in India on December 28.2009 .During His Visit a joint statement aiming at Strengthening bilateral cooperation on various global issues was issued.
  • The Sahitya Akademi's Bhasha Samman for 2008 has been Given to : Vishwanath khaire and surendranath satpathy
    The Sahitya Akademi has given its prestigious Nhasha Samman 2008 to Vishwanath Khaire and Surendranath Satpathy in the field of Classical and medieval literature.
  • The CNN-IBN Indian of the year is : A.R.Rahman

    the Oscar winner music director A.R.Rahman has been Conferred the CNN-IBN Indian of the year award for 2009 by prime minister Dr Manmohan Singh recently in New Delhi.
  • The writer who has won Sahitya akademi award in Hindi is : Kailash Vajpeyi
    Famous poet Kailash vajpeyi has won the Sahitya akademi award for his composition "Hawa Mein Hastakshar(poetry"
  • The winner of the King-fisher 57th National Squash Champianship are: Saurav Ghosal and Joshna Chinappa
    Saurav Ghosal won the men's final of the kingfisher 57th National Squash championship while Joshna Chinappa won the Women's final of the same compition on Dec 20,2009
  • The Champions in the jaypee cup syed Modi International Grand Prix Badminton Tournament are : Chetan Anand and Saina Nehwal
    Chetan Anand and Saina Nehwal won the the men's and women's final of the $50000 jaypee cup syed modi international grand prix badminton on dec 20,2009 in lucknow
  • The Indian Industrialist who recently received order of "Merit of Italian Republic " is : Ratan Tata
  • India's first commercial 2 megawatt solar power plant is inaugurated in: Awan Village
  • The Lal Bahadur Shastri Award has been Conferred on : Sunil Bharti Mittal
  • The Asian Tour Rookie of the Year is : C.Muniyappa
  • India recently test-fired : Danush Missile

    india successfully test-fired the nucleur capable ballistic missile Dhanush from a war-ship in the way of Bengal off Orissa coast on Dec 12,2009
  • Vasudha Award has been bagged by : Underground inferno and Meltdown in Tibet

    'Underground inferno' (India) and Meltdown in Tibet (by Michel Buckley of Canada ) were the joint winners of the 'Vashuda Award' for best environmental short-film/documentary in the international competition of the short films at the 40th International film festival of India (IFFI) 2009.
  • The Indian State which recently Get aid worth Rs 2254 crore from World bank is – Rajasthan

    Robert B.Zoellick world Bank president during his visit to Rajasthan Announced a proposed assistance programme of USD 490 million for 4 level projects of rajasthan over the coming 2 years
  • The top test cricket team of the world is : India
  • India recently Sealed civil nuclear deal with: Russia
  • The place from where the fragments of Catalan amphore has been found is : Pattanam
  • The world's fastest rail-link: The Wuhan-Guangzhou Railway Link
  • The Indian-american who has recently been made the head of united States agency for International development (USAID) is : Rajiv Shah
  • Recently U.S.A senate passed : health care bill
  • The tennis players who have been named International Tennis Federations (ITF) champions are : Roger Federer and Serena Williams
  • The FIFA and European Footballer of the Year: Lionel Messi
  • The Copenhagen accord was adopted on : Dec 19,2009
  • Recently Pakintan court annulled: The national reconciliations ordinance
  • The Chess world cup champion is: Boris Gelfand
  • The Nepal Cabinet Recently held its meeting at : The Everest
  • START which recently came into news stand for : strategic arms reduction treaty
  • The Championship Trophy (Hockey) was recently won by :Australia
  • The Hockey world player of the year 2009 is : Jamie Dwyer
  • The winner of the super-series Masters final of Badminton is : Lee Chong Wei


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13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


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Constitutional evolution under British ruleRegulating Act 1773beginning of British parliamentary control over the East India Companysubordination of the presidencies of Bombay and Madras to BengalGovernor of Bengal made Governal-Generalcouncil of Governor-General establishedSupreme Court established in CalcuttaPitt’s India Act 1784commercial and political activities of the Company separatedestablished a board of control over the CompanyCharter Act 1813trade monopoly of the Company abolishedmissionaries allowed to preach in IndiaCharter Act 1833Governor-General of Bengal becomes Governor-General of Indiafirst Governor-General Lord William Bentickends commercial activities of the CompanyCharter Act 1853legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s council separatedopen competition for Indian Civil Services establishedIndian Council Act 1861establishes legislative councils at the centre, presidencies and provincesGovernor-General’s executive council to have Indians as non…