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Thursday, February 4, 2010

NSG-Nucleur supplier group









WHAT IS THE NSG ?
The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of nuclear supplier countries which seeks to contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons through the implementation of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear related exports.
The NSG Guidelines are implemented by each Participating Government in accordance with its national laws and practices. Decisions on export applications are taken at the national level in accordance with national export licensing requirements.
History of the NSG

The NSG was created following the explosion in 1974 of a nuclear device by a non-nuclear-weapon State, which demonstrated that nuclear technology transferred for peaceful purposes could be misused.

The NSG Guidelines were published in 1978 as IAEA Document INFCIRC/254 (subsequently amended), to apply to nuclear transfers for peaceful purposes to help ensure that such transfers would not be diverted to unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activities.

At the 1990 NPT Review Conference, a number of recommendations were made by the committee reviewing the implementation of Article III, which had a significant impact on the NSG's activities in the 1990s.

In 1992, the NSG decided to establish Guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, material and technology (items which have both nuclear and non-nuclear applications) which could make a significant contribution to an unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activity. These Dual-Use Guidelines were published as Part 2 of INFCIRC/254, and the original Guidelines published in 1978 became Part 1 of INFCIRC/254.

The endorsement at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference (NPTREC) of the full-scope Safeguards policy already adopted by the NSG in 1992 clearly reflects the conviction of the international community that this nuclear supply policy is a vital element to promote shared nuclear non-proliferation commitments and obligations.

Participating Governments prepared a comprehensive information paper on the NSG for the 2000 NPT Review Conference. This was disseminated as IAEA document INFCIRC/539/Rev. 1 (Corr.) of November 2000 under the title “The NSG: Its Origins, Roles and Activities”.

What are the Guidelines?


  • Guidelines for Nuclear Transfers (INFCIRC/254, Part 1)
    The first set of NSG Guidelines governs the export of items that are especially designed or prepared for nuclear use.
    These include: (i) nuclear material; (ii) nuclear reactors and equipment therefor; (iii) non-nuclear material for reactors; (iv) plant and equipment for the reprocessing, enrichment and conversion of nuclear material and for fuel fabrication and heavy water production; and (v) technology associated with each of the above items.

  • Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology (INFCIRC/254, Part 2)
    The second set of NSG Guidelines governs the export of nuclear related dual-use items and technologies, that is, items that can make a major contribution to an unsafeguarded nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear explosive activity, but which have non-nuclear uses as well, for example in industry.

  • Aim of the NSG Guidelines
    The NSG Guidelines aim to ensure that nuclear trade for peaceful purposes does not contribute to the proliferation of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices which would not hinder international trade and cooperation in the nuclear field. The NSG Guidelines facilitate the development of trade in this area by providing the means whereby obligations to facilitate peaceful nuclear cooperation can be implemented in a manner consistent with international nuclear non-proliferation norms. 
Who are the current NSG participants?


The current Participating Governments are:

ARGENTINA, AUSTRALIA, AUSTRIA, BELARUS, BELGIUM, BRAZIL, BULGARIA, CANADA, CHINA, CROATIA, CYPRUS, CZECH REPUBLIC, DENMARK, ESTONIA, FINLAND, FRANCE, GERMANY, GREECE, HUNGARY, ICELAND, IRELAND, ITALY, JAPAN, KAZAKHSTAN, REPUBLIC OF KOREA, LATVIA, LITHUANIA, LUXEMBOURG, MALTA, NETHERLANDS, NEW ZEALAND, NORWAY, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROMANIA, RUSSIAN FEDERATION, SLOVAKIA, SLOVENIA, SOUTH AFRICA, SPAIN, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND, TURKEY, UKRAINE, UNITED KINGDOM, and UNITED STATES

2009/2010 NSG Chair Country: Hungary

The European Commission participates as an observer.


On what basis are participation decisions taken?

Factors taken into account for participation include the following:

  • The ability to supply items (including items in transit) covered by the Annexes to Parts 1 and 2 of the NSG Guidelines;
  • Adherence to the Guidelines and action in accordance with them;
  • Enforcement of a legally based domestic export control system which gives effect to the commitment to act in accordance with the Guidelines;
  • Adherence to one or more of the NPT, the Treaties of Pelindaba, Rarotonga, Tlatelolco, Bangkok or an equivalent international nuclear non-proliferation agreement, and full compliance with the obligations of such agreement(s);
  • Support of international efforts towards non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of their delivery vehicles.

What are the activities of the NSG?

The NSG holds the following meetings:


  • Plenary
    - The NSG Plenary works on the basis of consensus. Overall responsibility for activities lies with the NSG Participating Governments who meet once a year in a Plenary meeting.
    - The Plenary can decide to set up working groups, with recommendations by the Consultative Group, on matters such as the review of the NSG Guidelines, the Annexes, the procedural arrangements, information sharing and transparency activities.
    - The NSG Plenary can also mandate the Chair to conduct outreach activities with specific countries.

  • Consultative Group (CG)
    The CG is the NSG's standing intersessional working body, tasked to hold consultations on issues associated with the Guidelines on nuclear supply and the technical annexes. The CG takes its decisions by consensus.

  • Information Exchange Meeting (IEM)
    The IEM immediately precedes the NSG Plenary and provides another opportunity for Participating Governments to share information and developments of relevance to the objectives and content of the NSG Guidelines.
  • Working Groups
    (currently none)

  • Recent activities of the NSG
    The NSG held an Extraordinary Plenary Meeting in Vienna in December 2002 and agreed to several comprehensive amendments to strengthen its Guidelines, intended to prevent and counter the threat of diversion of nuclear exports to nuclear terrorism. The Plenary emphasised that effective export controls are an important tool to combat the threat of nuclear terrorism. While discussing the DPRK nuclear programme, the Participating Governments of the NSG called on all states to exercise extreme vigilance that their exports and any goods or nuclear technologies that transit their territorial jurisdiction do not contribute to any aspect of a North Korean nuclear weapons effort. 
  



 

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