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Gliding plane... acrystal direction along which the atoms can slip a defined distance without destroying the coherence of the crystal.

Grain...(Troy system)..480 grains to the oz.

Habit...Characteristic crystal form.
Hacklt...A fracture characteristic of metals in rock, like gold and copper. (hackly)

Hardness...The resistance by a substance to actions which tend to modify its surface by scratching, abrasion, penetration.

Hemimorphic...Half formed crystals in which the faces that grow on one end are different in angle and position from the faces to be found on the other end.

Hydrothermal...Hot water or solution sometimes superheated which the color is due to an essential constituent.

Igneous rock.. Rock formed by the solidification of magma.

Inclusions...Substances within a mineral, example, other minerals, gas bubbles, liquids, or other foreign objects.

Imitation Stones...Substances used to look like a genuine. ie: glass, plastic, etc.

Inclusions...Solid, gaseous, or liquid material of various types incorporated in a crystal during its formation and growth.

Intaglio...Incised carving; a sunken design, ie: cameo

Intarsia...Mosaic inlay work using colored stones. (and wood)

Ion...Electrically charged atom, radical or molecule.

Isomorphous ...Minerals in which two or more elements can replace each other to any extent without notably changing the appearance of the crystal.

Isotropic...Materials in which the optical character is the same in all directions.

Labradorescence...Patchy or diffuse iridescence due to the interference of light by reflection from parallel inclusions. Example Labradorite.

Light...Radiant energy which gives the sensation of sight. Velocity is 186,285 miles per second.

Litmus paper... colored paper used to show whether a solution is acid or alkaline.

Lopolith.. A large, lenticular, sunken mass of igneous rock whose surfaces are concordant with the enclosing rocks.

Luster...A reflective property of mineral surfaces.
Magma...Molten silica containing volatile substances in solution, present beneath the surface in certain areas of the earth's crust.

Malleable...Can be flattened by pounding, as in metals.

Mammillary... rounded mineral surface

Massive...Minerals not bounded by crystal faces.

Metamorphism...(geological)..Changes in rocks brought about by heat and pressure acting in the rocks just below the surface.

Meteorite...Solid object that comes from outer space and falls to earth.

Miaroles...Small cavities in granitic rocks created by volatile components.

Miller indices...Group of three digits used to designate crystal faces.

Mohs Scale...The relative scale of the hardness of minerals, from 1 to 10, the order of hardness with no significance to quantitative relationship.

Molecule...Two or more atoms in close relationship, The smallest quantity of an element or compound which is capable of independent existence.

Monochromatic Light...Light of one wavelength only.

Nicol Prism...Prism for producing polarized light, having split the light into two rays.

Nodule...A lump or node.

Opaque...Not transparent or translucent. (you can't see through it)

Optic Axis...The direction of single refraction in a double refractive mineral.

Optic sign...If the lower index of the refractive reading does not vary when the gemstone is rotated, it is uniaxial and + optic sign, if the higher index is steady and the lower index varies the optical sign is -.

Ore... A mineral occurring in sufficient amounts to permit its recovery at a profit.

Organic...compounds of carbon, ie: coal, jet

Orient...Characteristic sheen and iridescence, as displayed in a good pearl. v Orientation... Applied to crystals, this means visualizing the disposition of the principal directions within the crystal.

Orogenesis...A complex phenomena that leads to the formation of mountain ranges.

Outcrop...Where the bed rock is exposed.

Paleontology... a division of geology that concerns itself with prehistoric life.

Paragenesis..The sequence in time in which a mineral crystallizes with respect to the other minerals.

Paramorph...A chemically identical crystal compared with the original, but the atoms have been rearranged so that they no longer conform to the original outline.

Parting...A smooth fracture that looks like a cleavage plane but takes place only on certain planes in the crystal, not between any set of atoms, like true cleavage.


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13.1 Introduction

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13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

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13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


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