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Gk- H1

. Who is the highest Law Officer of an state?Advocate General
The palace of Amritsar was given by Mughal Emperor Akabr to whom?  Guru Ramdas
Which section of IPC is applicable for death under negligence?304 A
Sharavati Project is in which state?Karnataka
 Balimela Project is in which state? Orissa
What does the olymic flame symbolize? Continuity between new and ancient games
 COFEPOSA deals with what?Economic offences
 The earth rotates on its axis from?West to east
 If a match live commentary in delhi commences at 10.00 am what time the viewer at London shall tune into?  4.30 am
 The United Kingom consists of which countries?England, Northern Ireland, Scotland & Wales
 Who publishes employment news?Ministry of Information and broadcasting
 Which states in India are having their borders sharing with Myanmar? Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland & Arunachal Pradhesh.
Koyna Hydroelectric Power is located in which state? Maharastra
Who is the scientist made success of Green Revolution? Norman Borlaug
 Where are the largest coal deposits in India?Damodar Valley
 National Higway No. 2 connects which cities? Delhi & Kolkata
 Where is located the national centre for BipoFertilizer ? Ghaziabad
 Which satellite helps to telecast TV Network all over India? Insat IB
 Kanya Vidyadhan Yojna is in which state?Uttar Pradesh
 With which country UNO has agreement of Oil with Food?Iraq
 Who wrote the book : “My Kashmir: Conflict & Prospects of Enduring Peace”?  Mr. Habibullah
 Who emerged as the fastest woman of Beijing Olympics? Felipe Massa
Which country won sixteen God medals in Olympics 2008 at Beijing? Germany 
 What does IUCN stands for?  International Union for conservation of nature
 What is CERN in LHC?CERN is a French Space Agency French acronym for (European Organization for Nuclear Research) and was in news due to LHC experiment recently.
 Who was given Dhyanchand Award for 2008?Mukhbain Singh
 Who is the governor of Reserve Bank of India? D.Subarao
  Which country won field Hockey title in Olympics?Germany
 Whom is related to bhaskar Ghosh committee?Cultural Scemes
 The 106th Amendment Bill pertains to what? Cooperative Society
 Project Sankalp is related to what?  HIV / AIDS
 Micheil Saakashvili is president of which country? Georgia
 Which of the following coutries is not the member of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation? Mongolia
 World Food Day falls on what date?  16-Oct
 What is the name of the swimmer of USA who won 8 gold medals in Olympics? Michael Phelps
 Which one is the most competitive city of the world  New York, Followed by London & Tokyo 
 By which year India will be 4 Degree Hotter?40 years
 Where in Gujrat , ancient Budhdha plaque is discovered recently?Vadnagar in Gujarat 
 Controversial Pakistani Sceintist A.Q. Khan helped which of the nationas to make atomic arms?
 Which sports team among Punjab, ralways, UP & Services have won 55th National Boxing Championship?
 Microchip has recently turned (How many years?).
Recently the canbinet has increased hike of President , Vice President , and Governars by how much (in %)?


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13.0 Learning Outcome

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Initiatives towards Constitutional Status to Local Governance

13.2.1 Features of 73rd Constitutional Amendment

13.2.2 Features of 74th Constitutional Amendment

13.2.3 Decentralised Planning in Context of 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Act

13.3 Initiatives after Economic Reforms

13.4 Functioning of PRIs in Various States after 73rd Amendment

13.5 Functioning of Local Governance after 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment: Observations

13.6 Conclusion

13.7 Key Concepts

13.8 References and Further Reading

13.9 Activities


After studying this Unit you should be able to:

• Identify the background of revitalisation of local governance;

• Understand the features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment;

• Discuss the initiatives after economic reforms; and

• Outlines the functioning of local governance in various states after the amendment.


The revitalization of Pancha…

Q. What is the meaning of the terms like ‘Pardon’, ‘Reprieve’, ‘Respite’, ‘Remission’ and ‘Commutation’ with respect to the power of the President to grant pardon to convicted persons?

Ans. In terms of their scope and effect, these terms have specific connotations. The effect of Pardon is to abolish punishment and to absolve the convict of all charges. If Pardon is granted, it is assured as if the convict has not committed any crime. The convict will not face any disabilities due to the allegations and charges made against him. ‘Remission’ means reducing the punishment without changing the nature of punishment. For example, the imprisonment for 20 years may be reduced to the imprisonment for 10 years. ‘Commutation’ means reducing the punishment by changing the nature of punishment. For example, punishment to death may be changed to life imprisonment. ‘Respite’ means reducing or changing the nature of punishment in view of the specific facts and circumstances of the convict. For example, the punishment to death awarded to a pregnant woman, may be changed to simple life imprisonment. Respite means delay in execution of punishment especially that of death, in order to …



1.0 Learning outcome

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Concept of Democratic Decentralisation

1.3 Evolution of Democratic Decentralisation

1.4 Significance of Democratic Decentralisation

1.5 Democratic Decentralisation in India

1.6 Conclusion

1.7 Key concepts

1.8 References and Further Reading

1.9 Activities


After studying this unit, you should be able to:

• Understand the concept of Democratic Decentralization;

• Know the evolution and significance of Democratic Decentralization; and

• Describe the Democratic Decentralization pattern in India.


The dawn of 21st century is marked by decentralized governance both as a strategy and philosophy of brining about reforms and changes in democracies. These changes led to such virtues of transparency, responsiveness and accountability and ensures good governance. Today decentralization and democracy are the most significant themes in the development discourse. In the present contex…