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Monday, January 25, 2010

Unit 5 Accountability and control :part 1

  1. Concept of accountability and control
  2. Legislative control and administration
  3. Executive control over administration
  4. Judicial control over administration.
  5. Citizen and administration
  6. Role of media
  7. Interest group
  8. Voluntary Organisation
  9. Civil society
  10. Citizen charter
  11. Right of information
  12. Social audit

    Concept of accountability and control: accountability and control are very essential part of democratic system.
    After the advent of welfare state, the numbers of government function are increasing in variety and complexity. With the advance technology and specialization, state has started planned development with direct investment in the economic activities. Beaurocracy is becoming large with increased responsibility and power. Therefore to create a sense of Duty, the concept of administrative accountability and control come.

    Meaning of accountability: accountability is the origination of the administration to give a satisfactory account of their performance and the manner in which they have exercised the power conferred on them. The aim of accountability is to check wrong and arbitrary actions and to increase efficiency and effectiveness.

    Accountability also means liability or answerability .it is responsibility to some outside or higher level of authority by a person or group of person in a Organisation .accountability is reinforced by punitive action.

    Difference Between Accountability And Control


    accountability is referred after the action is taken whereas control is excessed before taking the action .therefore control intermediates and input oriented, but accountability is for long duration and output oriented. Ex... Control is action-oriented and accountability is result oriented.

    Differences between Accountability and Responsibility:
    accountability is to some outside or higher level of authority whereas responsibility is to himself/herself/themselves. that is accountability is rom without and responsibility is form "within"

Reasons of Accountability & control


  1. Power in a democratic society requires control because more power must be complemented with more accountability and control.
  2. Lord action said ," power corrupts and absolute power absolute ".therefore to check the absolute power ,some control mechanism is must
  3. To prevent the DESPOTIC or ARBITRARY exercises of power, accountability and control are needed.
  4. To safeguard the rights and liberties of people and to make bureaucracy more responsive and sensitive, some accountability and control are always recommended.
Origin of accountability and controls:
in any Organisation ,initially the work is divided (i.e. : division of work) .then responsibility is fixed to carry out the work with efficiency for which adequate AUTHORITY is given. And with authority, accountability and control are also attached. This can be Understand by following diagram.







Extent of Control: control should neither be INSUFFICIENT (or no control) nor be excessive .if it is insufficient, the public servant may become unresponsive and if it is excessive, public administer might lose their initiative and may be take minimum risk.

2. Legislative control and administration:





In any representative democratic state, legislative is the supreme origin of state because it consists of representatives of people. This is why, it exercises control over administration. The legislative control differs in both the following form of government. In the parliamentary form of Government (India & U.K) and presidential form of Government (U.S.A).





LEGISLATIVE CONTROL IN A PARLIAMENTARY FORM OF GOVERNMENT:
in any parliamentary form of government under the principle of anonymity and principles of ministerial or collective responsibility .the administration remain anonymous and only Indirect control is exercised. Through the ministers. That is for administrative misdeeds on behalf of the administration/administrators. Ministers are responsible to the legislative.

Parliament exercises the control over admin through executives in the following manners.


Executives





[* most of the above techniques like committees ,Audit system ,Money Bill and Budget are to be discussed at length under Financial administration unit. And Paper II , so at this place ,writing briefly about these will sufficient to write a good answer on Parliamentary control over Admin ]

A. Built In techniques in parliamentary procedure:
1. General techniques – employed for both financial and other matters.

Rest will continued in next blog due to 750 words limit/blog (blog is printable so you can print it)




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