- The Suez and the Panama Canals are two vital man-made navigation canals or waterways which serve as gateways of commerce for both the eastern and western worlds.
- The Suez Canal: constructed in 1869 in Egypt between Port Said in the north and Port Suez in the south linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. It gives Europe a new gateway to the Indian Ocean and reduces direct sea-route distance between Liverpool and Colombo compared to the Cape of Good Hope route
- The Panama Canal: This canal connects the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. Constructed across the Panama Isthmus between Panama City and Colon by the U.S. It shortens the distance between New York and San Francisco by 13,000 km by sea. .
- Inland Waterways : Rivers, canals, lakes and coastal areas have been important waterways
- The development of inland waterways is dependent on the navigability width and depth of the channel, continuity in the water flow and transport technology in use.
- Rivers are the only means of transport in dense forests. Very heavy cargo like coal, cement, timber and metallic ores can be transported through inland waterways
- The Rhine Waterways: The Rhine flows through Germany and the Netherlands. It is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam, at its mouth in the Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland The Ruhr river joins the Rhine from the east. This waterway is the world's most heavily used. Each year more than 20,000 ocean-going ships and 2, 00,000 inland vessels exchange their cargoes connects the industrial areas of Switzerland Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands with the North Atlantic Sea Route..
- The Danube Waterway This important inland waterway serves Eastern Europe. The Danube river rises in the Black Forest and flows eastwards through many countries. It is navigable up to Taurna Severin the chief export items are wheat, maize, timber, and machinery.
- The Volga Waterway: Russia has a large number of developed waterways, of which the Volga is one of the most important. It provides a navigable waterway of 11,200 km and drains into the Caspian Sea. The Volga-Moscow Canal connects it with the Moscow region and the Volga-Don Canal with the Black Sea.
- The Mississippi Waterways The Mississippi-Ohio waterway connects the interior part of U.S.A. with the Gulf of Mexico in the south. Large steamers can go through this route up to Minneapolis.
- The Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Seaway The Great Lakes of North America Superior, Huron Erie and Ontario are connected by Soo Canal and Welland Canal to form an inland waterway.
- Air transport is the fastest means of transportation, but it is very costly Valuable cargo can be moved rapidly on a world-wide scale. The manufacturing of aircrafts and their operations require elaborate infrastructure like hangars, landing, fuelling, and maintenance facilities for the aircrafts. The construction of airports is also very expensive and has developed more in highly industrialized countries where there is a large volume of traffic.
- Inter-Continental Air Routes: In the Northern Hemisphere, there is a distinct east-west belt of inter-continental air routes. Dense network exists in Eastern U.S.A., Western Europe and Southeast Asia. U.S.A. alone accounts for 60 per cent of the airways of the world. New York, London, Paris, Amsterdam, Frankfurt Rome, Moscow, Karachi, New Delhi Mumbai, Bangkok, Singapore, Tokyo, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Chicago are the nodal points where air routes converge or radiate to all continents
- Pipelines are used extensively to transport liquids and gases such as water, petroleum and natural gas for an uninterrupted flow.
- In Europe, Russia, West Asia and India pipelines are used to connect oil wells to refineries, and to ports or domestic markets
- Turkmenistan is central Asia has extended pipelines to Iran and also to parts of China.
- The proposed Iran-India via Pakistan international oil and natural gas pipeline will be the longest in the world.
- In U.S.A. there is a dense network of oil pipelines from the producing areas to the consuming areas. Big Inch is one such famous pipeline.
- Communication through satellites emerged as a new area in communication
- Aryabhatt was launched on 19 April 1979,
- Bhaskar-I in 1979 Rohini in 1980. On 18 June 1981, APPLE (Arian Passenger Payload Experiment) was launched through Arian rocket. Bhaskar.
Cyber Space – Internet
- Cyberspace is the world of electronic computerised space. There were less than 50 million Internet users in 1995, about 400 million in 2000 A.D. and over one billion in 2005. The next billion users are to be added by 2010.