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Friday, January 22, 2010

Transport and Communication part 1


 

  • Transport, communication and trade establish links between producing centers and consuming centers


     

    TRANSPORT

  • Transport is a service or facility for the carriage of persons and goods from one place to the other using humans, animals and different kinds of vehicles
  • Such movements take place over land, water and air
  • Roads and railways form part of land transport
  • shipping and waterways and airways are the other two modes
  • Pipelines carry materials like petroleum, natural gas, and ores in liquidities form.
  • What is a Transport Network?
    Several places (nodes) joined together by a series of routes (links) to form a pattern.


    MODES OF TRANSPORTATION

  • The principal modes of world transportation: land, water, air , pipelines.
  • Land Transport :


1. Most of the movement of goods and services takes place over land
2.first public railway line was opened in 1825 between Stockton and Darlington in northern
England and then onwards

3. Liquids like mineral oil, water, sludge and sewers are transported by pipelines


Roads:
1.
Road transport is the most economical for short distances compared to railways.

2. The world's total motor able road length is only about 15 million km
Highways
1
.

Highways are metalled roads connecting distant places. They are constructed in a manner for unobstructed vehicular movement.

2. In North America, highway density is high,

3. National Highway No. 7 (NH 7), connecting Varanasi with Kanya Kumari, is the longest in the country

4. The Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) or Super Expressway is underway to connect the four metropolitan cities — New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad.

5. Roads laid along international boundaries are called border roads.


 

Railways:

  • Railways are a mode of land transport for bulky goods and passengers over long distances.
  • The railway gauges are roughly classified as broad (more than 1.5 m), standard (1.44 m), meter gauge (1 m) and smaller gauges. The standard gauge is used in the U.K.
  • Europe has one of the most dense rail networks in the world 4,40,000 km of railways double or multiple-tracked
  • Belgium has the highest density of 1 km of railway for every 6.5 sq. kms area.
  • In Asia, rail network is the densest in the thickly populated areas of Japan, China and India.
  • There is only one trans-continental rail route linking Buenos Aires (Argentina) with Valparaiso (Chile) across the Andes Mountains through the Uspallatta Pass located at a height of 3,900 m.
  • In South America, the rail network is the most dense in two regions, namely, the Pampas of Argentina and the coffee growing region of Brazil which together account for 40 per cent
  • Australia has about 40,000 km of railways, of which 25 per cent are found in New South Wales alone.
  • In Russia, railways account for about 90 per cent of the country's total transport with a very dense network west of the Urals.
  • Africa continent has only 40,000 km of railways with South Africa alone accounting for 18,000 km due to the concentration of gold, diamond and copper mining activities
  • Trans–continental railways run across the continent and link its two ends.
  • Trans–Siberian Railways major rail route of Russia runs from St. Petersburg in the west to Vladivostok on the Pacific Coast in the east passing through Moscow, Ufa, Novosibirsk Irkutsk, Chita and Khabarovsk. It is the most important route in Asia and the longest (9,332 km) double-tracked and electrified transcontinental railway in the world
  • Trans–Canadian Railways 7,050 km long rail-line in Canada runs from Halifax in the east to Vancouver on the Pacific Coast passing through Montreal, Ottawa Winnipeg and Calgary constructed in 1886. This line is the economic artery of Canada. Wheat and meat are the important exports on this route.
  • The Union and Pacific Railway connects New York on the Atlantic Coast to San Francisco on the Pacific Coast passing through Cleveland, Chicago, Omaha, Evans, Ogden and Sacramento. The most exports on this route are ores, grain paper, chemicals and machinery.
  • The Australian Trans–Continental Railway: runs west-east across the southern part of the continent from Perth on the west coast, to Sydney on the east coast. Passing through Kalgoorlie, Broken Hill and Port Augusta.
  • The Orient Express runs from Paris to Istanbul passing through Strasbourg, Munich, Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade. The chief exports on this rail-route are cheese, bacon, oats, wine, fruits, and machinery.
  • There is a proposal to build a Trans–Asiatic Railway linking Istanbul with Bangkok via Iran, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

WATER TRANSPORT

  1. One of the great advantages of water transportation is that it does not require route construction
  2. It is much cheaper because the friction of water is far less than that of land. The energy cost of water transportation
  3. Water transport is divided into ocean routes and inland waterways
  4. Ocean Routes : The oceans offer a smooth highway traversable in all directions with no maintenance costs

Important Ocean Routes:

1. The Northern Atlantic Sea Route: This links North-eastern U.S.A. and North western

Europe, the two industrially developed regions of the world
One fourth of the world's foreign trade moves on this route.
Called the Big Trunk Route. Advanced ports and harbor facilities

2. The Mediterranean–Indian Ocean Route The trade route connects the highly industrialized Western European region with West Africa, South Africa, South-east Asia and the commercial agriculture and livestock economies of Australia and New Zealand.
The volume of trade and traffic between both East and West Africa is on the increase due to the development of the rich natural resources such as gold, diamond copper, tin, groundnut, oil palm, coffee and fruits..

3. The Cape of Good Hope Sea Route :
across the Atlantic Ocean which connects West European and West African countries with Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay in South America.

4. The North Atlantic Sea Route: links the ports on the west-coast of North America with those of Asia. These are Vancouver, Seattle, Portland, San Francisco and Los Angeles on the American side and Yokohama, Kobe, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila and Singapore on the Asian side.

5. The South Pacific Sea Route: connects Western Europe and North America with Australia, New Zealand and the scattered Pacific islands via the Panama Canal. This route is also used for reaching Hong Kong, Philippines and Indonesia. The distance covered between Panama and Sydney is 12,000 km. Honolulu is an important port on this route

6. Coastal Shipping: coastal shipping is a convenient mode of transportation with long coastlines U.S.A, China and India. Shenzhen States in Europe are most suitably placed for coastal shipping connecting one member's coast with the other. If properly developed, coastal shipping can reduce the congestion on the land routes

Continue in next part:

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