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NCERT 12 Human geography Chap 6: secondary activities

1.      All economic activity revolves around obtaining and utilizing resources necessary for survival.
2.      Secondary activities add values to natural resources by transforming raw material into valuable products.


Manufacturing
3.      Characteristics of modern large scale manufacturing are :
·         Specialization of skills/methods of production
·         Mechanization
·         Technological innovation
Organizational structure and stratification:
4.      Modern manufacturing is characterized by :
·         A complex machine technology
·         Extreme specialization and division of labor for producing more goods with less effort  and low cost
·         Vast capital
·         Large organization
·         Executive bureaucracy
Uneven geographic distribution:
v Some of factors influencing industrial locations are as :
5.     Access to market: near dense populated area where purchase powers of people are good. Aircraft and arms products have global market.
6.     Access to row material
7.     Access to labor supply
8.     Access to sources of energy
9.     Access to transportation and communication facility 
10.                        Government policy
11.                        Access to agglomeration economics /links between industries.








Classification of industries:
1.     Based on size :  
1.     Household industries or cottage manufacturing: it is smallest manufacturing unit .local raw materials and simple tools needed.
* foodstuffs ,fabrics ,mats ,containers ,tools ,furniture ,shoes ,,figurines from wood lot and forest ,shoes ,thongs and other articles from wood leather; pottery and bricks from clays and stones .

2.     Small scale industries:  different from household industries based on production technique and location.
* use local row material
* simple power driven machines
* semi-skilled labor
* local marketing
* mostly in India, China, Indonesia and Brazil.
* provide local employment.

3.     Large Scale Manufacturing :
o   Involves a large market
o   Various raw materials
o   Specialized workers
o   Enormous energy required
o   Advanced technology
o   Assembly line mass production
o   Large capital investment
o   Developed in United Kingdom 200 yrs ago speeded over world.
·        World major industrial region may be grouped into 2 types
1.     Traditional large-scale industrial regions which are thickly clustered in a few more developed countries.
2.     High-technology large scale industrial regions which have diffused to less developed country.
2. Industries based on inputs/raw material:
              on basis of the raw materials used, the industries are classified as:

·        Agro-based
·        Mineral based
·        Chemical based
·        Forest based
·        Animal based   

   Agro-based industries: process farm and agro-culture products
                                        food-processing, sugar, pickles, fruit juices, beverages ( tea coffee cocoa )
                                        spices and oils  fats and textiles (cotton jute silk ) rubber 
  Food processing: including canning, producing cream, fruit processing and confectionery.
                           Preserving technique used: drying fermentation pickling
·         Agribusiness is commercial farming on an industrial scale often financed by business which main interests lie outside agriculture.
·         Agro business farms are highly mechanized. Large in size .highly structured. Reliant on chemicals. Can describe as agro-factories.



Mineral based business: use minerals as row material. They can use metallic or non-metallic minerals. Minerals like iron, copper, aluminium are metallic but cement or pottery used non-metallic minerals.
Chemical based industry: use chemical minerals like salt, sulphur, potash, petroleum
Forest based industries: based on forest products as row materials. Timber for furniture industry. wood,bamboo,grass for paper industry .
Animal industries: leather and wool are products. Ivory from elephant’s tusks.
3.industries based on product/output 
4.industries based on ownership  
  •   public sector industries : state owned
  • private sector industries: privately run
  • joint sector industries : managed by group .may be private-public partnership
traditional large-scale industries : 
  1. they are based on heavy industries
 traditional regions can be recognized by:
  •   high proportion of employment in manyfacturing industry 
  • problems of unemployment ,emigration and derelict land areas caused by closure of factories of a worldwide fall in demand.
concept of high technology industry:
  • latest generation of manufacturng activities
  • intensive research and development 
  • addition of computer and special skilled workforce
  • regionally concentrated ,self-sustained ,highly specialised  ;called  technopolies.
  • silicon valley and silicon forest are some example.
iron and steel industry :
  • forms bases of other industry 
  • it is a heavy industry supply machine tools to other industry .its products are heavy so called heavy industry.
  • extracted iron from its ore and export iron and steel mainly.
  • located near sources of iron ore ,coal,manganese and limestone   or where these can be brought easily like sea-ports.
  • in India ,  iron industries are in jamshedpur ,rourkela,kulti-burnpur ,bhilai ,bokaro ,salem ,vishakhapattanam and bhadrawati . 
cotton textile industry : three sub-sectors   handloom,powerloom and mill sectors
provide employment to semi-skilled workers.
small capital investment.
cotton textile mill is highly capital intensive.
it require good qualit cotton.
india,china,USA,pakistan,uzbekistan,egypt produce quality cotton.
europe is biggest importer of cotton product.
it shifted to developing countries where cheap labor is available.

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